The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The major metabolite of equilin, 4-hydroxyequilin, autoxidizes to an o-quinone which isomerizes to the potent cytotoxin 4-hydroxyequilenin-o-quinone.

The risk factors for women developing breast and endometrial cancers are all associated with a lifetime of estrogen exposure. Estrogen replacement therapy in particular has been correlated with a slight increased cancer risk. Previously, we showed that equilenin, a minor component of Premarin (Wyeth-Ayerst), was metabolized to highly cytotoxic quinoids which caused oxidative stress and alkylation of DNA in vitro [Bolton, J. L., Pisha, E., Zhang, F., and Qiu, S. (1998) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 11, 1113-1127]. In this study, we have compared the chemistry of the major catechol metabolite of equilin (4-hydroxyequilin), which is found in several estrogen replacement formulations, to the equilenin catechol (4-hydroxyequilenin). Unlike endogenous catechol estrogens, both equilin and equilenin were primarily converted by rat liver microsomes to 4-hydroxylated rather than 2-hydroxylated o-quinone GSH conjugates. With equilin, a small amount of 2-hydroxyequilin GSH quinoids were detected (4-hydroxyequilin:2-hydroxyequilin ratio of 6:1); however, no peaks corresponding to 2-hydroxyequilenin were observed in incubations with equilenin. These data suggest that unsaturation in the B ring alters the regiochemistry of P450-catalyzed hydroxylation from primarily 2-hydroxylation for endogenous estrogens to 4-hydroxylation for equine estrogens. 4-Hydroxyequilenin-o-quinone reacts with GSH to give two mono-GSH conjugates and one di-adduct. The behavior of 4-hydroxyequilin was found to be more complex than 4-hydroxyequilenin as conjugates resulting from 4-hydroxyequilenin were detected in addition to the 4-hydroxyequilin-GSH adducts. The mechanism of decomposition of 4-hydroxyequilin likely involves isomerization to a quinone methide which readily aromatizes to 4-hydroxyequilenin followed by autoxidation to 4-hydroxyequilenin-o-quinone. Similar results were obtained with 2-hydroxyequilin, although, in contrast to 4-hydroxyequilenin, 2-hydroxyequilenin does not autoxidize and the reaction stops at the catechol. Since 4-hydroxyequilin is converted to 4-hydroxyequilenin and 4-hydroxyequilenin-o-quinone, similar effects were observed for this equine catechol, including consumption of NAD(P)H likely by the 4-hydroxyequilenin-o-quinone, depletion of molecular oxygen by 4-hydroxyequilenin or its semiquinone radical, and alkylation of deoxynucleosides and DNA by 4-hydroxyequilenin quinoids. Finally, preliminary studies conducted with the human breast tumor cell line MCF-7 demonstrated that the cytotoxic effects of the catechol estrogens from estrone, equilin, and 2-hydroxyequilenin were similar, whereas 4-hydroxyequilenin was a much more potent cytotoxin ( approximately 30-fold). These results suggest that the catechol metabolites of equine estrogens have the ability to cause alkylation/redox damage in vivo primarily through formation of 4-hydroxyequilenin quinoids.[1]


  1. The major metabolite of equilin, 4-hydroxyequilin, autoxidizes to an o-quinone which isomerizes to the potent cytotoxin 4-hydroxyequilenin-o-quinone. Zhang, F., Chen, Y., Pisha, E., Shen, L., Xiong, Y., van Breemen, R.B., Bolton, J.L. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (1999) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities