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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Proteolytic processing, axonal transport and differential distribution of chromogranins A and B, and secretogranin II (secretoneurin) in rat sciatic nerve and spinal cord.

The chromogranin family comprises chromogranin A and B, and secretogranin II. The present study has focused on the axonal transport of chromogranins/secretogranin II and their detailed distribution in peripheral nerves and the spinal cord. With radioimmunoassay (RIA) and column chromatography, we first studied the processing of chromogranin B and secretogranin II during axonal transport. No larger precursors of these peptides were detected in the sciatic nerves, indicating that they are already processed to a high degree early during axonal transport. We also analysed nerve segments above and below a crush, using RIA, in order to compare these accumulation data with those obtained by the cytofluorimetric-scanning (CFS) technique. For the latter technique, the amounts of accumulation distal to the crush (presumably representing recycling and retrogradely transported peptides) were 30-40% of the amounts in the proximal accumulation for chromogranin A and secretoneurin, in contrast to chromogranin B, which showed 15% recycling. With the RIA, the corresponding values for secretoneurin and PE-11 (antibody against chromogranin B) were 42% and 14%, respectively. Therefore, the data obtained by CFS were in excellent agreement with those obtained by RIA. In crushed sciatic nerves, chromogranin A was present in large axons as well as in small- and medium-sized axons. Chromogranin B was mainly restricted to large axons, while secretoneurin was localized to bundles of small axons. This differential distribution was also found in the spinal roots and in the peripheral terminals. Chromogranin A was present in both ventral and dorsal roots, and chromogranin B was detected in ventral roots and in large sensory axons in the dorsal roots. Secretoneurin was dominant in the dorsal root. Double-labelling studies with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase/vesicular acetylcholine transporter, or against tyrosine hydroxylase, confirmed that chromogranin A was distributed in cholinergic, sensory, as well as adrenergic neurons. Chromogranin B was mainly present in cholinergic motor neurons and large sensory neurons, and secretoneurin was restricted to adrenergic and sensory neurons. The present study demonstrates that chromogranins A and B, and secretoneurin are transported with fast axonal transport in the peripheral nerves, with different amounts of recycling, and that they are differentially distributed in different types of neurons in the peripheral nervous system and the spinal cord, suggesting that each of them may play a special role in subsets of neurons.[1]


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