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Gene Review

Slc18a3  -  solute carrier family 18 (vesicular...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Solute carrier family 18 member 3, VAChT, VACht, Vacht, Vat, ...
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Disease relevance of Slc18a3


High impact information on Slc18a3


Chemical compound and disease context of Slc18a3


Biological context of Slc18a3

  • The human VAChT gene also localizes to chromosome 10 near the gene for choline acetyltransferase [8].
  • Here, we show that the first intron of the rat ChAT gene contains an open reading frame that encodes a potential vesicular acetylcholine transporter based on the following criteria [9].
  • The results demonstrate that analysis of microscopic kinetics is required for the correct interpretation of mutational effects in VAChT [10].
  • Acetylcholine binding site in the vesicular acetylcholine transporter [10].
  • Transcription of VAChT and ChAT mRNA from the same or contiguous promoters within a single regulatory locus provides a previously undescribed genetic mechanism for coordinate regulation of two proteins whose expression is required to establish a mammalian neuronal phenotype [1].

Anatomical context of Slc18a3


Associations of Slc18a3 with chemical compounds

  • In neuronal cells the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is transferred from the cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles by the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) [12].
  • A classical tyrosine motif is also involved in VAChT trafficking, but does not interact with any known adaptor proteins [12].
  • A fusion protein between the VAChT cytoplasmic tail and glutathione S-transferase was used to identify VAChT-clathrin-associated protein adaptor protein 1, adaptor protein 2 and adaptor protein 180 complexes from a rat brain extract [12].
  • The observations suggest a model in which the known ion pair between lysine in TMD II and aspartate in TMD XI controls the conformation or relative position of TMD XI, which in turn controls additional TMDs in the C-terminal half of VAChT [14].
  • Replacement of Ser-480 by glutamate, to mimic the phosphorylation event, increases the localization of VAChT to LDCVs [5].

Regulatory relationships of Slc18a3


Other interactions of Slc18a3


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Slc18a3


  1. Functional identification of a vesicular acetylcholine transporter and its expression from a "cholinergic" gene locus. Erickson, J.D., Varoqui, H., Schäfer, M.K., Modi, W., Diebler, M.F., Weihe, E., Rand, J., Eiden, L.E., Bonner, T.I., Usdin, T.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Subpopulations of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons express active vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Tata, A.M., De Stefano, M.E., Srubek Tomassy, G., Vilaró, M.T., Levey, A.I., Biagioni, S. J. Neurosci. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential effects of traumatic brain injury on vesicular acetylcholine transporter and M2 muscarinic receptor mRNA and protein in rat. Shao, L., Ciallella, J.R., Yan, H.Q., Ma, X., Wolfson, B.M., Marion, D.W., Dekosky, S.T., Dixon, C.E. J. Neurotrauma (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Autonomic microganglion cells: a source of acetylcholine in the rat carotid body. Gauda, E.B., Cooper, R., Johnson, S.M., McLemore, G.L., Marshall, C. J. Appl. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. A phosphorylation site regulates sorting of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter to dense core vesicles. Krantz, D.E., Waites, C., Oorschot, V., Liu, Y., Wilson, R.I., Tan, P.K., Klumperman, J., Edwards, R.H. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential localization of vesicular acetylcholine and monoamine transporters in PC12 cells but not CHO cells. Liu, Y., Edwards, R.H. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. ANP-mediated cGMP signaling and phosphodiesterase inhibition in the rat cervical spinal cord. de Vente, J., Markerink-van Ittersum, M., Vles, J.S. J. Chem. Neuroanat. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular cloning of a putative vesicular transporter for acetylcholine. Roghani, A., Feldman, J., Kohan, S.A., Shirzadi, A., Gundersen, C.B., Brecha, N., Edwards, R.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. A unique gene organization for two cholinergic markers, choline acetyltransferase and a putative vesicular transporter of acetylcholine. Bejanin, S., Cervini, R., Mallet, J., Berrard, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Acetylcholine binding site in the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Ojeda, A.M., Kolmakova, N.G., Parsons, S.M. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the rat nucleus accumbens shell: subcellular distribution and association with mu-opioid receptors. Svingos, A.L., Colago, E.E., Pickel, V.M. Synapse (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. The vesicular acetylcholine transporter interacts with clathrin-associated adaptor complexes AP-1 and AP-2. Kim, M.H., Hersh, L.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cortical interneurons do not occur in all rodents: A study of the phylogenetic occurrence of this neural characteristic. Bhagwandin, A., Fuxe, K., Manger, P.R. J. Chem. Neuroanat. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Mutational and pH analysis of ionic residues in transmembrane domains of vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Bravo, D.T., Kolmakova, N.G., Parsons, S.M. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Peripheral CRF activates myenteric neurons in the proximal colon through CRF(1) receptor in conscious rats. Miampamba, M., Maillot, C., Million, M., Taché, Y. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Coregulation of two embedded gene products, choline acetyltransferase and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Berrard, S., Varoqui, H., Cervini, R., Israël, M., Mallet, J., Diebler, M.F. J. Neurochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. NO synthase in cholinergic nerves and NO-induced relaxation in the rat isolated corpus cavernosum. Hedlund, P., Alm, P., Andersson, K.E. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Vesicular amine transporter expression and isoform selection in developing brain, peripheral nervous system and gut. Schütz, B., Schäfer, M.K., Eiden, L.E., Weihe, E. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. 5-HT1A receptor mRNA and immunoreactivity in the rat medial septum/diagonal band of Broca-relationships to GABAergic and cholinergic neurons. Lüttgen, M., Ogren, S.O., Meister, B. J. Chem. Neuroanat. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. The cholinergic locus: ChAT and VAChT genes. Mallet, J., Houhou, L., Pajak, F., Oda, Y., Cervini, R., Bejanin, S., Berrard, S. J. Physiol. Paris (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Long-term effect of moderate and profound hypothermia on morphology, neurological, cognitive and behavioural functions in a rat model of perinatal asphyxia. Hoeger, H., Engidawork, E., Stolzlechner, D., Bubna-Littitz, H., Lubec, B. Amino Acids (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Visualization of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter in cholinergic nerve terminals and its targeting to a specific population of small synaptic vesicles. Weihe, E., Tao-Cheng, J.H., Schäfer, M.K., Erickson, J.D., Eiden, L.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of the putative vesicular acetylcholine transporter in rat brain and localization in cholinergic synaptic vesicles. Gilmor, M.L., Nash, N.R., Roghani, A., Edwards, R.H., Yi, H., Hersch, S.M., Levey, A.I. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
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