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Gene Review

Chga  -  chromogranin A (parathyroid secretory...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: CgA, Chromogranin-A
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Disease relevance of Chga


Psychiatry related information on Chga


High impact information on Chga

  • We conclude that activation of chromogranin A transcription by secretory stimulation in chromaffin cells is highly dependent upon precise route of calcium entry into the cytosol; transcription occurred after entry of calcium through -type channels on the cell surface, and was mediated by protein kinase C activation [8].
  • KCREB, a dominant negative mutant of the CRE-binding protein CREB, blunted activation of chromogranin A transcription by nicotine, phorbol ester, or membrane depolarization [8].
  • Here, we examine signal transduction pathways whereby secretory stimuli influence exocytotic secretion versus chromogranin A transcription [8].
  • Transcriptional responses to both nicotine and protein kinase C mapped principally onto the chromogranin A promoter's cAMP response element (TGACGTAA; CRE box) [8].
  • The purpose of this study was to examine whether ECL cells, which are controlled by gastrin, represent a major source of circulating pancreastatin, a fragment of chromogranin A. METHODS: Rats underwent surgical procedures and treatments in which the ECL cells could be manipulated [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Chga


Biological context of Chga


Anatomical context of Chga


Associations of Chga with chemical compounds

  • On the contrary, in castrated rats supplied with an estradiol implant, the expression and content of CgA in the pituitary were remarkably suppressed, and large secretory granules disappeared from gonadotropes [20].
  • A testosterone implant to castrated rats remarkably suppressed the expression and circulating levels of LH and increased the CgA content in the pituitary to near-normal levels [20].
  • These different effects of androgen and estrogen on the expression level of CgA are closely associated with the sex-related differences in the ultrastructure of secretory granules within gonadotropes [20].
  • Estrogen replacement resulted in a parallel decrease of CgA and LH beta mRNA to the control values, starting from the lowest steroid dose (5 micrograms) [21].
  • Repeated phencyclidine treatment (10mg/kg/day) for five days resulted in elevated secretoneurin levels in cortical areas whereas chromogranin A and chromogranin B tissue levels were unchanged [22].

Regulatory relationships of Chga


Other interactions of Chga


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chga


  1. Distribution of chromogranin A and secretogranin I (chromogranin B) in neuroendocrine cells and tumors. Lloyd, R.V., Cano, M., Rosa, P., Hille, A., Huttner, W.B. Am. J. Pathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular cloning of chromogranin A from rat pheochromocytoma cells. Parmer, R.J., Koop, A.H., Handa, M.T., O'Connor, D.T. Hypertension (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Catecholamine secretory vesicles. Augmented chromogranins and amines in secondary hypertension. Takiyyuddin, M.A., De Nicola, L., Gabbai, F.B., Dinh, T.Q., Kennedy, B., Ziegler, M.G., Sabban, E.L., Parmer, R.J., O'Connor, D.T. Hypertension (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. The molecular cloning of the chromogranin A-like precursor of beta-granin and pancreastatin from the endocrine pancreas. Hutton, J.C., Nielsen, E., Kastern, W. FEBS Lett. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Inhibition of angiogenesis induces chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. Wassberg, E., Hedborg, F., Sköldenberg, E., Stridsberg, M., Christofferson, R. Am. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors underlies microglial reactivity and neurotoxicity following stimulation with chromogranin A, a peptide up-regulated in Alzheimer's disease. Taylor, D.L., Diemel, L.T., Cuzner, M.L., Pocock, J.M. J. Neurochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Chromogranin A applied to the nucleus accumbens decreases locomotor activity induced by activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in the rat. Brudzynski, S.M., Munoz, D.G. Brain Res. Bull. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Stimulus coupling to transcription versus secretion in pheochromocytoma cells. Convergent and divergent signal transduction pathways and the crucial roles for route of cytosolic calcium entry and protein kinase C. Tang, K., Wu, H., Mahata, S.K., Mahata, M., Gill, B.M., Parmer, R.J., O'Connor, D.T. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Circulating pancreastatin is a marker for the enterochromaffin-like cells of the rat stomach. Håkanson, R., Ding, X.Q., Norlén, P., Chen, D. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. In vivo regulation of chromogranin A messenger ribonucleic acid in the parathyroid by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D: studies in normal rats and in chronic renal insufficiency. Soliman, E., Canaff, L., Fox, J., Hendy, G.N. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Chromogranin A inhibits dopamine release from rat striatal slices. Gibson, C.J., Munoz, D.G. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Differential expression of secretogranin II and chromogranin A genes in the female rat pituitary through sexual maturation and estrous cycle. Anouar, Y., Duval, J. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Large dense-core secretory granule biogenesis is under the control of chromogranin A in neuroendocrine cells. Kim, T., Tao-Cheng, J.H., Eiden, L.E., Loh, Y.P. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Direct estradiol down-regulation of secretogranin II and chromogranin A mRNA levels in rat pituitary cells. Anouar, Y., Duval, J. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Immunocytochemical localization of chromogranin A and secretogranin II in female rat gonadotropes. Watanabe, T., Azuma, T., Banno, T., Jeziorowski, T., Ohsawa, Y., Waguri, S., Grube, D., Uchiyama, Y. Arch. Histol. Cytol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Glucocorticoid- and nerve growth factor-induced changes in chromogranin A expression define two different neuronal phenotypes in PC12 cells. Rausch, D.M., Iacangelo, A.L., Eiden, L.E. Mol. Endocrinol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Secretin activation of chromogranin A gene transcription. Identification of the signaling pathways in cis and in trans. Mahapatra, N.R., Mahata, M., O'Connor, D.T., Mahata, S.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Proteolytic processing, axonal transport and differential distribution of chromogranins A and B, and secretogranin II (secretoneurin) in rat sciatic nerve and spinal cord. Li, J.Y., Leitner, B., Lovisetti-Scamihorn, P., Winkler, H., Dahlström, A. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Phylogenetic study on distribution and chromogranin/secretogranin content of histamine immunoreactive elements in the gut. D'Este, L., Renda, T. Italian journal of anatomy and embryology = Archivio italiano di anatomia ed embriologia. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of sex steroids on secretory granule formation in gonadotropes of castrated male rats with respect to granin expression. Watanabe, T., Banno, T., Jeziorowski, T., Ohsawa, Y., Waguri, S., Grube, D., Uchiyama, Y. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Estradiol negatively regulates secretogranin II and chromogranin A messenger ribonucleic acid levels in the female rat pituitary but not in the adrenal. Anouar, Y., Benie, T., De Monti, M., Counis, R., Duval, J. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Differential regulation of chromogranin A, chromogranin B and secretogranin II in rat brain by phencyclidine treatment. Marksteiner, J., Weiss, U., Weis, C., Laslop, A., Fischer-Colbrie, R., Humpel, C., Feldon, J., Fleischhacker, W.W. Neuroscience (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Insulin-like growth factor I-mediated activation of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein in PC12 cells. Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated pathway. Pugazhenthi, S., Boras, T., O'Connor, D., Meintzer, M.K., Heidenreich, K.A., Reusch, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. A crucial role for the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in nicotinic cholinergic signaling to secretory protein transcription in pheochromocytoma cells. Tang, K., Wu, H., Mahata, S.K., O'Connor, D.T. Mol. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. SNAP-25 regulation during adrenal gland development: comparison with differentiation markers and other SNAREs. Hepp, R., Grant, N.J., Aunis, D., Langley, K. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Synergistic amplification of beta-amyloid- and interferon-gamma-induced microglial neurotoxic response by the senile plaque component chromogranin A. Twig, G., Graf, S.A., Messerli, M.A., Smith, P.J., Yoo, S.H., Shirihai, O.S. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression of chromogranin A and somatostatin receptors in pancreatic AR42J cells. Hofsli, E., Thommesen, L., Nørsett, K., Falkmer, S., Syversen, U., Sandvik, A., Laegreid, A. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Biosynthesis of large dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells: effects of depolarization and second messengers on the mRNA levels of their constituents. Tschernitz, C., Laslop, A., Eiter, C., Kroesen, S., Winkler, H. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Rat adrenal medulla: levels of chromogranins, enkephalins, dopamine beta-hydroxylase and of the amine transporter are changed by nervous activity and hypophysectomy. Sietzen, M., Schober, M., Fischer-Colbrie, R., Scherman, D., Sperk, G., Winkler, H. Neuroscience (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Chromogranins in rat brain: characterization, topographical distribution and regulation of synthesis. Weiler, R., Marksteiner, J., Bellmann, R., Wohlfarter, T., Schober, M., Fischer-Colbrie, R., Sperk, G., Winkler, H. Brain Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
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