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Gene Review

Chgb  -  chromogranin B (secretogranin 1)

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: CgB, Chromogranin-B, Glucagonoma peptide, Secretogranin-1, Secretogranin-I, ...
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Disease relevance of Chgb

  • Of the carcinoids, CgA was expressed in most of the tumors, except for the rectal and ovarian carcinoids, which expressed CgB strongly [1].
  • We purified from pheochromocytoma chromaffin granules an SDS-PAGE 110-120 kDa protein whose N-terminal sequence matched that previously deduced from a human CgB cDNA [2].
  • We conclude that CgB is extensively processed in glucagonoma tissue by limited proteolysis as prohormones at conserved basic residues [3].
  • We examined CgA, SgI and SgII mRNA expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in rat mammary adenocarcinoma and fibroadenoma which had arisen spontaneously in aging Fischer-344 rats [4].
  • To investigate whether this sorting was due to coaggregation of the deletion mutant with endogenous granins, we expressed human CgB using recombinant vaccinia viruses, under conditions in which the synthesis of endogenous granins in the infected PC12 cells was shut off [5].

High impact information on Chgb

  • Our results show that Piccolo is transported to nascent synapses on an approximately 80 nm dense core granulated vesicle together with other constituents of the active zone, including Bassoon, Syntaxin, SNAP-25, and N-cadherin, as well as chromogranin B [6].
  • The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B mediates membrane binding and directs sorting from the trans-Golgi network to secretory granules [7].
  • The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B (CgB), a regulated secretory protein with widespread distribution in neuroendocrine cells, is known to be essential for the sorting of CgB from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to immature secretory granules [7].
  • Sorting to ISG of full-length human CgB and a deletion mutant of human CgB (Deltacys-hCgB) lacking the 22-amino acid residues comprising the disulfide-bonded loop was compared in the rat neuroendocrine cell line PC12 [5].
  • Upon transfection, i.e., with ongoing synthesis of endogenous granins, the sorting of the deletion mutant was only slightly impaired compared to full-length CgB [5].

Chemical compound and disease context of Chgb


Biological context of Chgb


Anatomical context of Chgb


Associations of Chgb with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Chgb


Other interactions of Chgb

  • Increased expression of CgB mRNA was delayed and prolonged compared with SgII and was significantly (P < 0.05) increased between 3 and 24 h (120-145%) after CSD, peaked at 2 days (180%), and was still elevated at 1 week (130%) compared with contralateral cortex [20].
  • For the latter technique, the amounts of accumulation distal to the crush (presumably representing recycling and retrogradely transported peptides) were 30-40% of the amounts in the proximal accumulation for chromogranin A and secretoneurin, in contrast to chromogranin B, which showed 15% recycling [9].
  • Insulin treatment induced increased levels of enkephalins, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, the amine carrier and of chromogranin B whereas catecholamines, cytochrome b-561 and chromagranin A remained slightly below control levels [21].
  • Here we show that TGF-beta2 colocalizes with the trans-Golgi network marker TGN38 and a marker molecule for secretory granules, chromogranin B (CgB), in PC12 cells [22].
  • The rat pituitary cell line GH4C1 secretes granins (chromogranin B and secretogranin II) and prolactin by the regulated secretory pathway [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chgb

  • Immunoblotting of neuroendocrine tissues (or their hormone storage vesicle cores) with both anti N-terminal and anti C-terminal CgB antisera suggested bidirectional cleavage or processing of CgB; in the anterior pituitary, a unique 40 kDa C-terminal fragment was observed [2].
  • Eight peptides (fragments 1-8) purified by HPLC from acidic tumor extracts were partially sequenced and showed homology to CgB amino acid sequences deduced from rat, mouse, and human cDNA [3].
  • Chromogranin B mRNA levels were not changed by either insulin treatment or hypophysectomy [24].
  • Adrenal medullary chromogranin A messenger RNA levels in clipped rats were 3.2-fold higher (p = 0.029) than those in the control group, and chromogranin B messenger RNA levels were 4.6-fold higher (p = 0.05) [25].
  • Immunohistochemistry performed in rat and bovine tissues established that chromogranin B is present in all cells of the adrenal medulla [26].


  1. Immunohistochemical expression of chromogranins A and B, prohormone convertases 2 and 3, and amidating enzyme in carcinoid tumors and pancreatic endocrine tumors. Kimura, N., Pilichowska, M., Okamoto, H., Kimura, I., Aunis, D. Mod. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Chromogranin B: isolation from pheochromocytoma, N-terminal sequence, tissue distribution and secretory vesicle processing. Gill, B.M., Barbosa, J.A., Dinh, T.Q., Garrod, S., O'Connor, D.T. Regul. Pept. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Chromogranin-B, a putative precursor of eight novel rat glucagonoma peptides through processing at mono-, di-, or tribasic residues. Nielsen, E., Welinder, B.S., Madsen, O.D. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of chromogranin/secretogranin mRNA in spontaneous mammary tumors in aging Fischer-344 rats. Umemura, S., Iwasaka, T., Osamura, R.Y. Pathol. Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Essential role of the disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B for sorting to secretory granules is revealed by expression of a deletion mutant in the absence of endogenous granin synthesis. Krömer, A., Glombik, M.M., Huttner, W.B., Gerdes, H.H. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Assembling the presynaptic active zone: a characterization of an active one precursor vesicle. Zhai, R.G., Vardinon-Friedman, H., Cases-Langhoff, C., Becker, B., Gundelfinger, E.D., Ziv, N.E., Garner, C.C. Neuron (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B mediates membrane binding and directs sorting from the trans-Golgi network to secretory granules. Glombik, M.M., Krömer, A., Salm, T., Huttner, W.B., Gerdes, H.H. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Transcriptional regulation of secretogranin II and chromogranin B by cyclic AMP in a rat pheochromocytoma cell line. Thompson, M.E., Valentine, D.L., Strada, S.J., Wagner, J.A., Scammell, J.G. Mol. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Proteolytic processing, axonal transport and differential distribution of chromogranins A and B, and secretogranin II (secretoneurin) in rat sciatic nerve and spinal cord. Li, J.Y., Leitner, B., Lovisetti-Scamihorn, P., Winkler, H., Dahlström, A. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Nucleotide sequence and cellular distribution of rat chromogranin B (secretogranin I) mRNA in the neuroendocrine system. Forss-Petter, S., Danielson, P., Battenberg, E., Bloom, F., Sutcliffe, J.G. J. Mol. Neurosci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Further evidence that behavioral tests and neuropeptide mRNA and tissue level alterations can differentiate between typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. Bauer, R., Mayr, A., Lederer, W., Needham, P.L., Kilpatrick, I.C., Fleischhacker, W.W., Marksteiner, J. Neuropsychopharmacology (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Biosynthesis of large dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells: effects of depolarization and second messengers on the mRNA levels of their constituents. Tschernitz, C., Laslop, A., Eiter, C., Kroesen, S., Winkler, H. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Phylogenetic study on distribution and chromogranin/secretogranin content of histamine immunoreactive elements in the gut. D'Este, L., Renda, T. Italian journal of anatomy and embryology = Archivio italiano di anatomia ed embriologia. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential regulation of chromogranin A, chromogranin B and secretogranin II in rat brain by phencyclidine treatment. Marksteiner, J., Weiss, U., Weis, C., Laslop, A., Fischer-Colbrie, R., Humpel, C., Feldon, J., Fleischhacker, W.W. Neuroscience (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Limbic seizures induce neuropeptide and chromogranin mRNA expression in rat adrenal medulla. Tsunashima, K., Wolkersdorfer, M., Schwarzer, C., Sperk, G., Fischer-Colbrie, R. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Ontogenesis of chromogranin A and B and catecholamines in rat adrenal medulla. Schober, M., Fischer-Colbrie, R., Winkler, H. Brain Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Disruption of disulfide bonds exhibits differential effects on trafficking of regulated secretory proteins. Gorr, S.U., Huang, X.F., Cowley, D.J., Kuliawat, R., Arvan, P. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Beta cell chromogranin B is partially segregated in distinct granules and can be released separately from insulin in response to stimulation. Giordano, T., Brigatti, C., Podini, P., Bonifacio, E., Meldolesi, J., Malosio, M.L. Diabetologia (2008) [Pubmed]
  19. Chromogranin mRNA levels in the brain as a marker for acute and chronic changes in neuronal activity: effect of treatments including seizures, osmotic stimulation and axotomy in the rat. Shen, P.J., Gundlach, A.L. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Differential increases in chromogranins, but not synapsin I, in cortical neurons following spreading depression: implications for functional roles and transmitter peptide release. Shen, P.J., Gundlach, A.L. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Rat adrenal medulla: levels of chromogranins, enkephalins, dopamine beta-hydroxylase and of the amine transporter are changed by nervous activity and hypophysectomy. Sietzen, M., Schober, M., Fischer-Colbrie, R., Scherman, D., Sperk, G., Winkler, H. Neuroscience (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Transforming growth factor beta2 is released from PC12 cells via the regulated pathway of secretion. Specht, H., Peterziel, H., Bajohrs, M., Gerdes, H.H., Krieglstein, K., Unsicker, K. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Differential storage of prolactin, granins (Chromogranin B and secretogranin II), and constitutive secretory markers in rat pituitary GH4C1 cells. Gorr, S.U. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Neural and humoral factors separately regulate neuropeptide Y, enkephalin, and chromogranin A and B mRNA levels in rat adrenal medulla. Fischer-Colbrie, R., Iacangelo, A., Eiden, L.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Catecholamine secretory vesicles. Augmented chromogranins and amines in secondary hypertension. Takiyyuddin, M.A., De Nicola, L., Gabbai, F.B., Dinh, T.Q., Kennedy, B., Ziegler, M.G., Sabban, E.L., Parmer, R.J., O'Connor, D.T. Hypertension (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Immunological studies on the distribution of chromogranin A and B in endocrine and nervous tissues. Fischer-Colbrie, R., Lassmann, H., Hagn, C., Winkler, H. Neuroscience (1985) [Pubmed]
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