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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Regulation of megakaryocytopoiesis and platelet production by tyrosine kinases and tyrosine phosphatases.

Megakaryocytopoiesis is the process by which bone marrow progenitor cells develop into mature megakaryocytes, which in turn produce platelets required for normal hemostasis. The development of this hematopoietic lineage depends on a variety of growth factors and cytokines. Growth factor-dependent tyrosine kinase receptors important in megakaryocytopoiesis include c-Kit, fibroblast growth factor receptor, the RON receptor, and the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor. Binding of growth factors to their respective receptors results in receptor dimerization and subsequent autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Tyrosine autophosphorylations become sites of association for cytoplasmic signaling molecules via their SH2 domains. Some of these molecules are themselves cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases such as the Src kinases, TEC, and CHK. Others are molecules such as phospholipase C-gamma, phosphoinositol 3-kinase, Shc, GTPase-activating protein, and the SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2. These molecules generate second messengers, regulate the phosphorylation of other downstream molecules, and also regulate the phosphorylation of the receptor itself. The different cytoplasmic components activate pathways involved in either changes in cell growth or changes in the cytoskeleton that affect maturation of the cell. Cytokine receptors also generate signals involved in growth and differentiation. Some of these second messengers overlap with those of the receptor tyrosine kinases. Others, such as the JAKs/STATs, are involved in transcriptional control and are unique to the signaling mediated by cytokine receptors. We describe the contribution of these different signals to the growth/differentiation processes of megakaryocytes. We also describe the contribution of receptor and nonreceptor tyrosine phosphatases to these processes. Lastly, we have compiled selected methods related to the study of protein phosphorylation in megakaryocytes.[1]


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