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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Hsl7 localizes to a septin ring and serves as an adapter in a regulatory pathway that relieves tyrosine phosphorylation of Cdc28 protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Successful mitosis requires faithful DNA replication, spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, and cell division. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the G(2)-to-M transition requires activation of Clb-bound forms of the protein kinase, Cdc28. These complexes are held in an inactive state via phosphorylation of Tyr19 in the ATP-binding loop of Cdc28 by the Swe1 protein kinase. The HSL1 and HSL7 gene products act as negative regulators of Swe1. Hsl1 is a large (1,518-residue) protein kinase with an N-terminal catalytic domain and a very long C-terminal extension. Hsl1 localizes to the incipient site of cytokinesis in the bud neck in a septin-dependent manner; however, the function of Hsl7 was not previously known. Using both indirect immunofluorescence with anti-Hsl7 antibodies and a fusion of Hsl7 to green fluorescent protein, we found that Hsl7 also localizes to the bud neck, congruent with the septin ring that faces the daughter cell. Both Swe1 and a segment of the C terminus of Hsl1 (which has no sequence counterpart in two Hsl1-related protein kinases, Gin4 and Kcc4) were identified as gene products that interact with Hsl7 in a two-hybrid screen of a random S. cerevisiae cDNA library. Hsl7 plus Swe1 and Hsl7 plus Hsl1 can be coimmunoprecipitated from extracts of cells overexpressing these proteins, confirming that Hsl7 physically associates with both partners. Also consistent with the two-hybrid results, Hsl7 coimmunoprecipitates with full-length Hsl1 less efficiently than with a C-terminal fragment of Hsl1. Moreover, Hsl7 does not localize to the bud neck in an hsl1Delta mutant, whereas Hsl1 is localized normally in an hsl7Delta mutant. Phosphorylation and ubiquitinylation of Swe1, preludes to its destruction, are severely reduced in cells lacking either Hsl1 or Hsl7 (or both), as judged by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Collectively, these data suggest that formation of the septin rings provides sites for docking Hsl1, exposing its C terminus and thereby permitting recruitment of Hsl7. Hsl7, in turn, presents its cargo of bound Swe1, allowing phosphorylation by Hsl1. Thus, Hsl1 and Hsl7 promote proper timing of cell cycle progression by coupling septin ring assembly to alleviation of Swe1-dependent inhibition of Cdc28. Furthermore, like septins and Hsl1, homologs of Hsl7 are found in fission yeast, flies, worms, and humans, suggesting that its function in this control mechanism may be conserved in all eukaryotes.[1]


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