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Gene Review

SWE1  -  Swe1p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: J0406, Mitosis inhibitor protein kinase SWE1, Wee1 homolog, YJL187C
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High impact information on SWE1

  • Dephosphorylation of Cdk1 leads to further phosphorylation of Swe1 and release of Cdk1 [1].
  • Zds1 (also known as Oss1 and Hst1) is important in repressing the transcription of SWE1 in G2 phase [2].
  • This checkpoint regulates the Wee1 homolog, Swe1p, to induce cell-cycle delay or arrest when aspects of bud formation are defective [3].
  • The evidence for these proposals is reviewed, highlighting recent findings indicating that Swe1p degradation is controlled by the cell shape change that accompanies bud emergence [3].
  • The nim1-related protein kinase, Hsl1, induces entry into mitosis by negatively regulating Swe1 [4].

Biological context of SWE1


Anatomical context of SWE1


Associations of SWE1 with chemical compounds

  • The cells treated with exogenous AdoMet and AdoHcy had markedly decreased levels of SWE1 and CLN2 mRNA, providing the basis for the suppression of the Ca(2+) sensitivity by the sah1-1 mutation [8].
  • Rather, we found that polarized growth induced by mutations in CDC12 and CLA4 or by expression of excess SWE1 was also sensitive to EDTA treatment and was restored by the addition of MnCl(2) but not by the addition of CaCl(2) [12].
  • Indeed, the increase in cell size due to ethanol was partially abolished in the SWE1-deleted cells, and the amount of Swe1 protein increased transiently in the presence of ethanol [13].
  • The cell cycle delay depends upon the tyrosine kinase Swe1p, which phosphorylates and inhibits the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28p (Sia, R.A.L., H.A. Herald, and D.J. Lew. 1996. Mol. Biol. Cell. 7:1657- 1666) [9].
  • Using budding yeast as a model system, we found that Swe1, a negative regulator of Cdk, appears at S-phase and accumulates in HU treatment cells [14].

Enzymatic interactions of SWE1

  • The Swe1 protein kinase phosphorylates tyrosine residue 19 of Cdc28 and inhibits its activity [15].
  • Swe1 is recruited to the neck and hyperphosphorylated before ubiquitin-mediated degradation [16].

Regulatory relationships of SWE1

  • Thus, deletion of SWE1 does not prevent the hypertonic stress-induced inhibition of Clb2p-Cdc28p kinase activity [17].
  • Hsl1/Nik1, Kcc4 and Gin4 are structurally homologous protein kinases that localize to the bud neck and negatively regulate Swe1 by phosphorylation [18].
  • The Swe1p stabilization promotes cell cycle arrest through Swe1p-mediated inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc28p until the cells can recover from the perturbation and resume bud formation [19].
  • Calcineurin and Mpk1 activate Swe1 at the transcriptional and post-translational level, respectively, and both pathways are essential for the cell cycle delay [20].

Other interactions of SWE1

  • Another gene, HSL7, is a novel negative regulator of Swe1 function [15].
  • OSS1 is important for the transcriptional repression of SWE1 and CLN2 in G2 [15].
  • This bud morphology results at least in part from a cell cycle delay imposed by the Cdc28p-inhibitory kinase Swe1p [21].
  • Prolonging polarized growth phases by disrupting the G(2)/M cyclin gene CLB2 enhances the accuracy of bud site selection in wild-type, spa2Delta, and ste20Delta cells, whereas shortening the polarized growth phases by deleting SWE1 decreases the fidelity of bipolar budding [22].
  • Previous studies have suggested that Elm1 may function to negatively regulate the Swe1 kinase [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SWE1


  1. Cdk1-dependent regulation of the mitotic inhibitor Wee1. Harvey, S.L., Charlet, A., Haas, W., Gygi, S.P., Kellogg, D.R. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Role of calcineurin and Mpk1 in regulating the onset of mitosis in budding yeast. Mizunuma, M., Hirata, D., Miyahara, K., Tsuchiya, E., Miyakawa, T. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. The morphogenesis checkpoint: how yeast cells watch their figures. Lew, D.J. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Nim1-related kinases coordinate cell cycle progression with the organization of the peripheral cytoskeleton in yeast. Barral, Y., Parra, M., Bidlingmaier, S., Snyder, M. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wee1 and its differential regulation of p34CDC28 in response to G1 and G2 cyclins. Booher, R.N., Deshaies, R.J., Kirschner, M.W. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Cdc28 tyrosine phosphorylation and the morphogenesis checkpoint in budding yeast. Sia, R.A., Herald, H.A., Lew, D.J. Mol. Biol. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Chromatin-Modifiying Enzymes Are Essential When the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Morphogenesis Checkpoint Is Constitutively Activated. Ruault, M., Pillus, L. Genetics (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Involvement of S-adenosylmethionine in G1 cell-cycle regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mizunuma, M., Miyamura, K., Hirata, D., Yokoyama, H., Miyakawa, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. A morphogenesis checkpoint monitors the actin cytoskeleton in yeast. McMillan, J.N., Sia, R.A., Lew, D.J. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Conservation of mechanisms controlling entry into mitosis: budding yeast wee1 delays entry into mitosis and is required for cell size control. Harvey, S.L., Kellogg, D.R. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. The yeast kinase Swe1 is required for proper entry into cell cycle after arrest due to ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis defects. Saracino, F., Bassler, J., Muzzini, D., Hurt, E., Agostoni Carbone, M.L. Cell Cycle (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Filamentous growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by manganese. Asleson, C.M., Asleson, J.C., Malandra, E., Johnston, S., Berman, J. Fungal Genet. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of ethanol on cell growth of budding yeast: genes that are important for cell growth in the presence of ethanol. Kubota, S., Takeo, I., Kume, K., Kanai, M., Shitamukai, A., Mizunuma, M., Miyakawa, T., Shimoi, H., Iefuji, H., Hirata, D. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. The function and regulation of budding yeast Swe1 in response to interrupted DNA synthesis. Liu, H., Wang, Y. Mol. Biol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. A search for proteins that interact genetically with histone H3 and H4 amino termini uncovers novel regulators of the Swe1 kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ma, X.J., Lu, Q., Grunstein, M. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Coupling morphogenesis to mitotic entry. Sakchaisri, K., Asano, S., Yu, L.R., Shulewitz, M.J., Park, C.J., Park, J.E., Cho, Y.W., Veenstra, T.D., Thorner, J., Lee, K.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulation of cell cycle progression by Swe1p and Hog1p following hypertonic stress. Alexander, M.R., Tyers, M., Perret, M., Craig, B.M., Fang, K.S., Gustin, M.C. Mol. Biol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae bud-neck proteins Kcc4 and Gin4 have distinct but partially-overlapping cellular functions. Okuzaki, D., Watanabe, T., Tanaka, S., Nojima, H. Genes Genet. Syst. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Determinants of Swe1p degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. McMillan, J.N., Theesfeld, C.L., Harrison, J.C., Bardes, E.S., Lew, D.J. Mol. Biol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. GSK-3 kinase Mck1 and calcineurin coordinately mediate Hsl1 down-regulation by Ca2+ in budding yeast. Mizunuma, M., Hirata, D., Miyaoka, R., Miyakawa, T. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Septin-dependent assembly of a cell cycle-regulatory module in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Longtine, M.S., Theesfeld, C.L., McMillan, J.N., Weaver, E., Pringle, J.R., Lew, D.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Polarized growth controls cell shape and bipolar bud site selection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sheu, Y.J., Barral, Y., Snyder, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. The elm1 kinase functions in a mitotic signaling network in budding yeast. Sreenivasan, A., Kellogg, D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Hsl7 localizes to a septin ring and serves as an adapter in a regulatory pathway that relieves tyrosine phosphorylation of Cdc28 protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Shulewitz, M.J., Inouye, C.J., Thorner, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Dynamic localization of the Swe1 regulator Hsl7 during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle. Cid, V.J., Shulewitz, M.J., McDonald, K.L., Thorner, J. Mol. Biol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Cdc5 interacts with the Wee1 kinase in budding yeast. Bartholomew, C.R., Woo, S.H., Chung, Y.S., Jones, C., Hardy, C.F. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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