The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Induction of cytokines and chemokines in human monocytes by Mycoplasma fermentans-derived lipoprotein MALP-2.

Bacterial infections are characterized by strong inflammatory reactions. The responsible mediators are often bacterially derived cell wall molecules, such as lipopolysaccharide or lipoteichoic acids, which typically stimulate monocytes and macrophages to release a wide variety of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Mycoplasmas, which lack a cell wall, may also stimulate monocytes very efficiently. This study was performed to identify mycoplasma-induced mediators. We investigated the induction of cytokines and chemokines in human monocytes exposed to the Mycoplasma fermentans-derived membrane component MALP-2 (macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2) by dose response and kinetic analysis. We found a rapid and strong MALP-2-inducible chemokine and cytokine gene expression which was followed by the release of chemokines and cytokines with peak levels after 12 to 20 h. MALP-2 induced the neutrophil-attracting CXC chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and GRO-alpha as well as the mononuclear leukocyte-attracting CC chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta. Production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-6 started at the same time as chemokine release but required 10- to 100-fold-higher MALP-2 doses. The data show that the mycoplasma-derived lipopeptide MALP-2 represents a potent inducer of chemokines and cytokines which may, by the attraction and activation of neutrophils and mononuclear leukocytes, significantly contribute to the inflammatory response during mycoplasma infection.[1]


  1. Induction of cytokines and chemokines in human monocytes by Mycoplasma fermentans-derived lipoprotein MALP-2. Kaufmann, A., Mühlradt, P.F., Gemsa, D., Sprenger, H. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities