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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

TGF-beta increases retinal endothelial cell permeability by increasing MMP-9: possible role of glial cells in endothelial barrier function.

PURPOSE. To determine transforming growth factor (TGF) beta effects on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as a potential cause of the blood-retinal barrier breakdown at the onset of angiogenesis. Previously, glial cells were shown to play a role in the angiogenesis process and to express the angiogenic regulating factor TGF-beta, which becomes active under hypoxia conditions. Here, the authors demonstrate that retinal endothelial cells express MMP-9 when treated with TGF-beta or cocultured with glial cells and that both TGF-beta and MMP-9 increase endothelial cell permeability. METHODS. Primary cultures of bovine retinal endothelial (BRE) cells grown on porous membranes were treated with TGF-beta or purified MMP-9, and permeability changes were assayed. The amount and distribution of the tight junction protein occludin also was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. Cell extracts or conditioned media from TGF-beta-treated BRE cells and from glial cell-BRE cocultures were analyzed for MMP-9 content by substrate gel electrophoresis (zymography) or Western blotting. RESULTS. Both TGF-beta and MMP-9 increased the permeability of BRE monolayers and reduced the levels of the junction protein occludin. The effect of MMP-9 on permeability was rapid, but the TGF-beta-induced permeability required longer incubation and was blocked by anti-TGF-beta and anti-MMP-9 antibodies as well as by TGF-beta latency-associated peptide. Zymography showed that MMP-9 activity, which was very low or absent in untreated BRE cultures, was dramatically increased by TGF-beta as well as by coculturing with either astrocytes or Müller glial cells. Anti-TGF-beta antibody blocked the TGF-beta effect, but not the coculture effect on MMP-9 production. CONCLUSIONS. These data indicate a direct correlation between TGF-beta- induced MMP-9 activity and increased endothelial cell permeability. Moreover, endothelial cell production of MMP-9 is regulated by glial cells through expression of TGF-beta or by direct cell-to-cell contact. During retinal disease, glial cell production of active TGF-beta may contribute to breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier by stimulating endothelial cell MMP-9 production.[1]


  1. TGF-beta increases retinal endothelial cell permeability by increasing MMP-9: possible role of glial cells in endothelial barrier function. Behzadian, M.A., Wang, X.L., Windsor, L.J., Ghaly, N., Caldwell, R.B. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
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