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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Compensatory increase in AQP2, p-AQP2, and AQP3 expression in rats with diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with osmotic diuresis and natriuresis. At day 15, rats with DM induced by streptozotocin (n = 13) had severe hyperglycemia (27.1 +/- 0.4 vs. 4.7 +/- 0.1 mM in controls) and had a fivefold increase in water intake (123 +/- 5 vs. 25 +/- 2 ml/day) and urine output. Semiquantitative immunoblotting revealed a significant increase in inner medullary AQP2 (201 +/- 12% of control rats, P < 0.05) and phosphorylated (Ser(256)) AQP2 (p-AQP2) abundance (299 +/- 32%) in DM rats. Also, the abundance of inner medullary AQP3 was markedly increased to 171 +/- 19% of control levels (100 +/- 4%, n = 7, P < 0.05). In contrast, the abundance of whole kidney AQP1 (90 +/- 3%) and inner medullary AQP4 (121 +/- 16%) was unchanged in rats with DM. Immunoelectron microscopy further revealed an increased labeling of AQP2 in the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct principal cells (with less labeling in the intracellular vesicles) of DM rats, indicating enhanced trafficking of AQP2 to the apical plasma membrane. There was a marked increase in urinary sodium excretion in DM. Only Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE3 was downregulated (67 +/- 10 vs. 100 +/- 11%) whereas there were no significant changes in abundance of type 2 Na-phosphate cotransporter (128 +/- 6 vs. 100 +/- 10%); the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (125 +/- 19 vs. 100 +/- 10%); the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (121 +/- 9 vs. 100 +/- 10%); the alpha(1)-subunit of the Na-K-ATPase (106 +/- 7 vs. 100 +/- 5%); and the proximal tubule Na-HCO(3) cotransporter (98 +/- 16 vs. 100 +/- 7%). In conclusion, DM rats had an increased AQP2, p-AQP2, and AQP3 abundance as well as high AQP2 labeling of the apical plasma membrane, which is likely to represent a vasopressin-mediated compensatory increase in response to the severe polyuria. In contrast, there were no major changes in the abundance of AQP1, AQP4, and several major proximal and distal tubule Na(+) transporters except NHE3 downregulation, which may participate in the increased sodium excretion.[1]


  1. Compensatory increase in AQP2, p-AQP2, and AQP3 expression in rats with diabetes mellitus. Nejsum, L.N., Kwon, T.H., Marples, D., Flyvbjerg, A., Knepper, M.A., Frøkiaer, J., Nielsen, S. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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