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Gene Review

Aqp1  -  aquaporin 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: AQP-1, Aquaporin-1, Aquaporin-CHIP, Chip28, Water channel protein for red blood cells and kidney proximal tubule
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Disease relevance of Aqp1


Psychiatry related information on Aqp1

  • We tested the possibility that food deprivation might affect the expression and activity of aquaporins (AQP1, 2), thereby impairing renal water reabsorption in the kidney [6].
  • The purpose of these studies was to examine the urinary concentrating ability, the expression of kidney water channels [aquaporins (AQP1 to AQP3)], and medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) Na+-dependent transporters in old but not senescent versus young animals in response to water deprivation [7].

High impact information on Aqp1

  • These results provide for the first time evidence for the expression of an aquaporin in skeletal muscle correlated to a specific fiber-type metabolism [8].
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether escape from vasopressin-induced antidiuresis is associated with altered regulation of any of the known aquaporin water channels [9].
  • To investigate a potential role for the AQP1 water channel in development, lung membranes from fetal and perinatal rats were analyzed by immunoblot [10].
  • AQP1 was not expressed in airway epithelium, and only occasional alveolar pneumocytes were labeled [10].
  • Immunoelectron microscopy revealed AQP1 on both apical and basolateral membranes of endothelial cells [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Aqp1


Biological context of Aqp1

  • Expression of mRNA of AQPs (AQP-1-AQP-4) was studied by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) [15].
  • Because AQP1 is present on the basolateral cholangiocyte membrane in low amounts, we hypothesized that another AQP must be expressed at this domain to facilitate transbasolateral water movement [16].
  • These results suggest that a reduced abundance of AQP water channels in the kidney accounts in part for postobstructive diuresis [4].
  • The time course and pattern of AQP4 expression suggests that this aquaporin plays an important role in brain water and K+ homeostasis from the second week of development [17].
  • In the efferent ducts and epididymis, specificity exists in cell, region, and tissue distribution with respect to the expression of AQP-1 and -9, and their expression does not appear to be regulated by androgens [18].

Anatomical context of Aqp1


Associations of Aqp1 with chemical compounds

  • To further specify the primary point of dysregulation of AQP channels that are activated by the arginine vasopressin/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AVP/cAMP) pathway, different components of adenylyl cyclase complex were separately examined for their cAMP-generating activities [22].
  • On the other hand, in the CHG group, expression of AQP-1 and AQP-4 were significantly suppressed, and ultrafiltration volume was lost [15].
  • The use of PSL with CHG completely restored the expression of AQP-1 and AQP-4, and peritoneal function improved [15].
  • Cisplatin decreases the abundance of aquaporin water channels in rat kidney [23].
  • Before the identification of aquaporin (AQP) proteins, vasopressin-regulated "water channels" were identified by freeze-fracture electron microscopy as aggregates or clusters of intramembraneous particles (IMPs) on hormonally stimulated target cell membranes [24].

Co-localisations of Aqp1

  • In thymocytes, AQP-1 is present and was shown to colocalize with the plasma membrane receptor tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNF-R1) both before and after the AVD, which suggests that this protein is not proteolytically cleaved and remains on the cell membrane [25].

Regulatory relationships of Aqp1

  • In retin, AQP1 is expressed approximately six-fold higher than AQP4, the only other aquaporin expressed [26].
  • In cornea, AQP1 is expressed approximately three-fold higher than AQP3 and 2.5 fold higher than AQP5 [26].
  • We recently reported that secretin induces the exocytic insertion of functional aquaporin-1 water channels (AQP1) into the apical membrane of cholangiocytes and proposed that this was a key process in ductal bile secretion [16].
  • We conclude that the descending thin limbs shift from expressing AQP1 to expressing ClC-K1 some distance before the point where they turn and begin to ascend [27].
  • Expression and distribution of aquaporin of collecting duct are regulated by vasopressin V2 receptor in rat kidney [28].

Other interactions of Aqp1

  • Analysis of the expression of aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-9 in pig liver tissue: comparison with rat liver tissue [29].
  • Expression of AQP1 and AQP4 in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells was investigated in order to determine whether these isoforms were present and, in particular, to examine the hypothesis that brain endothelial expression of AQPs is dynamic and regulated by astrocytic influences [2].
  • Neither the expression of AQP1 nor that of AQP3 was significantly affected in the cortex, outer medulla, or inner medulla [22].
  • Results from the study demonstrate that water channels AQP1 and AQP6, and the heterotrimeric Go protein are associated with SVs and participate in their swelling [30].
  • To specify further the primary point of derangement in the pathway that activates the arginine vasopressin-mediated AQP channels, different components of adenylyl cyclase complex were examined separately [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Aqp1

  • In passage 4 endothelial cells, AQP1 mRNA levels are reduced by coculture above rat astrocytes, demonstrating that astrocytic influences are important in maintaining the low levels of AQP1 characteristic of the blood-brain barrier endothelium [2].
  • In the TZ group, expression of AQP-1 and AQP-4 were significantly enhanced, in parallel with an increment in ultrafiltration volume [15].
  • Our results suggest that AQP-1 and AQP-4 may be important factors in water transport in patients undergoing CAPD [15].
  • The renal expression of AQP1 to AQP4 proteins was then determined by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses [4].
  • Rats were sacrificed and the kidneys were homogenized at various time points after release of the clamp for semiquantitative immunoblotting of collecting duct aquaporins, as well as the thick ascending limb Na-K-2Cl cotransporter and the proximal tubule water channel, aquaporin-1 [5].


  1. Impaired aquaporin and urea transporter expression in rats with adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome. Fernández-Llama, P., Andrews, P., Nielsen, S., Ecelbarger, C.A., Knepper, M.A. Kidney Int. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Induction of aquaporin 1 but not aquaporin 4 messenger RNA in rat primary brain microvessel endothelial cells in culture. Dolman, D., Drndarski, S., Abbott, N.J., Rattray, M. J. Neurochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Increased expression of renal aquaporin water channels in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Lee, J., Kim, S., Kim, J., Jeong, M.H., Oh, Y., Choi, K.C. Kidney Blood Press. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Diminished renal expression of aquaporin water channels in rats with experimental bilateral ureteral obstruction. Kim, S.W., Cho, S.H., Oh, B.S., Yeum, C.H., Choi, K.C., Ahn, K.Y., Lee, J. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Decreased abundance of collecting duct aquaporins in post-ischemic renal failure in rats. Fernández-Llama, P., Andrews, P., Turner, R., Saggi, S., Dimari, J., Kwon, T.H., Nielsen, S., Safirstein, R., Knepper, M.A. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Fasting downregulates renal water channel AQP2 and causes polyuria. Amlal, H., Chen, Q., Habo, K., Wang, Z., Soleimani, M. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Resistance of mTAL Na+-dependent transporters and collecting duct aquaporins to dehydration in 7-month-old rats. Amlal, H., Wilke, C. Kidney Int. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression of aquaporin-4 in fast-twitch fibers of mammalian skeletal muscle. Frigeri, A., Nicchia, G.P., Verbavatz, J.M., Valenti, G., Svelto, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of renal aquaporins in escape from vasopressin-induced antidiuresis in rat. Ecelbarger, C.A., Nielsen, S., Olson, B.R., Murase, T., Baker, E.A., Knepper, M.A., Verbalis, J.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Aquaporin-1 water channel protein in lung: ontogeny, steroid-induced expression, and distribution in rat. King, L.S., Nielsen, S., Agre, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Decreased expression of aquaporin water channels in denervated rat kidney. Lee, J., Yoo, K., Kim, S.W., Jung, K.H., Ma, S.K., Lee, Y.K., Kim, W.Y., Kim, J., Choi, K.C. Nephron. Physiology [electronic resource]. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of renal aquaporins 1, 2, and 3 in a rat model of cisplatin-induced polyuria. Kishore, B.K., Krane, C.M., Di Iulio, D., Menon, A.G., Cacini, W. Kidney Int. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Aldosterone increases urine production and decreases apical AQP2 expression in rats with diabetes insipidus. Nielsen, J., Kwon, T.H., Praetorius, J., Frøkiaer, J., Knepper, M.A., Nielsen, S. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of age and testosterone on the vasopressin and aquaporin responses to dehydration in Fischer 344/Brown-Norway F1 rats. Catudioc-Vallero, J., Sands, J.M., Klein, J.D., Sidorowicz, H.E., Sladek, C.D. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Glucocorticoid restores the deterioration of water transport in the peritoneum through increment in aquaporin. Imai, H., Nakamoto, H., Ishida, Y., Inoue, T., Kanno, Y., Okada, H., Suzuki, S., Okano, H., Suzuki, H. Advances in peritoneal dialysis. Conference on Peritoneal Dialysis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of aquaporin-4 water channels in rat cholangiocytes. Marinelli, R.A., Pham, L.D., Tietz, P.S., LaRusso, N.F. Hepatology (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Ontogeny of water transport in rat brain: postnatal expression of the aquaporin-4 water channel. Wen, H., Nagelhus, E.A., Amiry-Moghaddam, M., Agre, P., Ottersen, O.P., Nielsen, S. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression and regulation of aquaporins 1, 8, and 9 in the testis, efferent ducts, and epididymis of adult rats and during postnatal development. Badran, H.H., Hermo, L.S. J. Androl. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Postnatal expression of aquaporins in epithelial cells of the rat epididymis. Da Silva, N., Silberstein, C., Beaulieu, V., Piétrement, C., Van Hoek, A.N., Brown, D., Breton, S. Biol. Reprod. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Evidence against functionally significant aquaporin expression in mitochondria. Yang, B., Zhao, D., Verkman, A.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression, localization, and regulation of aquaporin-1 to -3 in rat urothelia. Spector, D.A., Wade, J.B., Dillow, R., Steplock, D.A., Weinman, E.J. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Amphotericin B decreases adenylyl cyclase activity and aquaporin-2 expression in rat kidney. Kim, S.W., Yeum, C.H., Kim, S., Oh, Y., Choi, K.C., Lee, J. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Cisplatin decreases the abundance of aquaporin water channels in rat kidney. Kim, S.W., Lee, J.U., Nah, M.Y., Kang, D.G., Ahn, K.Y., Lee, H.S., Choi, K.C. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Aquaporin-2 localization in clathrin-coated pits: inhibition of endocytosis by dominant-negative dynamin. Sun, T.X., Van Hoek, A., Huang, Y., Bouley, R., McLaughlin, M., Brown, D. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Plasma membrane aquaporin activity can affect the rate of apoptosis but is inhibited after apoptotic volume decrease. Jablonski, E.M., Webb, A.N., McConnell, N.A., Riley, M.C., Hughes, F.M. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Expression of aquaporins in the rat ocular tissue. Patil, R.V., Saito, I., Yang, X., Wax, M.B. Exp. Eye Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Immunomorphometric study of rat renal inner medulla. Mejia, R., Wade, J.B. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Expression and distribution of aquaporin of collecting duct are regulated by vasopressin V2 receptor in rat kidney. Hayashi, M., Sasaki, S., Tsuganezawa, H., Monkawa, T., Kitajima, W., Konishi, K., Fushimi, K., Marumo, F., Saruta, T. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Analysis of the expression of aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-9 in pig liver tissue: comparison with rat liver tissue. Talbot, N.C., Garrett, W.M., Caperna, T.J. Cells Tissues Organs (Print) (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Involvement of water channels in synaptic vesicle swelling. Jeremic, A., Cho, W.J., Jena, B.P. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) (2005) [Pubmed]
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