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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cloning, sequencing, and homology analysis of nonhuman primate Fas/Fas-ligand and co-stimulatory molecules.

The finding that a single administration of select recombinant human cytokines to nonhuman primates leads to potent cytokine-neutralizing antibody responses in the heterologous host despite >95% homology at the nucleotide and protein level prompted our laboratory to clone, sequence, and prepare recombinant nonhuman primate cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and other immunoregulatory molecules. In the present report, we present findings on the gene sequences encoding the nonhuman primate homologues of human CD80, CD86, their ligands CD28 and CD152, CD154, CD95, and CD95-L from rhesus macaques and for phylogenetic analysis from pig-tailed macaques, African sooty mangabey monkeys, baboons, and vervets as well as select molecules from the New World aotus and marmoset monkeys. With the exception of CD95, the homology between nonhuman primate and human co-stimulatory molecules was above 95%. In contrast, CD95 was only 89.2% homologous to human CD95, but the differences were essentially found in the transmembrane and intracellular (death) domains. The extracellular portion of CD95 was more homologous which was in accordance with approximately 98% homology between Old World monkey and human CD95-L. In general, sequences from the New World monkey species appeared equidistant to sequences from Old World species and humans in terms of homology suggesting distinct evolutionary patterns. Of interest was the isolation of various splice variants of monkey CD86, CD152 (CTLA-4), CD154, and CD95 transcripts. This is also the first report documenting the occurrence of natural CD86 variants with deleted transmembrane domains, found both in sooty mangabeys and baboon RNA samples. Monkey CD95 showed various deletions and addition of residues in the transmembrane and intracytoplasmic domains compared with human CD95 and between Old and New World species. Subcloning of rhesus CD154 into an expression vector demonstrated expression of a functional protein in cell culture. The other genes are being cloned into expression vectors for the preparation and biological characterization of the nonhuman primate molecules. These investigations will provide novel reagents for in vivo use as immunomodulatory reagents in nonhuman primates in studies which may provide a rationale for their use in humans.[1]


  1. Cloning, sequencing, and homology analysis of nonhuman primate Fas/Fas-ligand and co-stimulatory molecules. Villinger, F., Bostik, P., Mayne, A., King, C.L., Genain, C.P., Weiss, W.R., Ansari, A.A. Immunogenetics (2001) [Pubmed]
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