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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The toxicology of the three commercial polybrominated diphenyl oxide (ether) flame retardants.

Three commercial polybrominated diphenyl oxide flame retardants (PBDPO, PBDE) are manufactured: decabromodiphenyl oxide (DBDPO), octabromodiphenyl oxide (OBDPO) and pentabromodiphenyl oxide (PeBDPO). The composition, production volumes, uses and toxicology of the three products differ. In 1999, DBDPO accounted for approximately 82% of the global PBDPO usage. DBDPO has been extensively tested. DBDPO was not acutely toxic, was not irritating to the skin or eye, and did not induce skin sensitization. No evidence of genotoxic effects was detected in the Ames Salmonella, chromosome aberration, mouse lymphoma, or sister chromatid exchange tests. No cytogenic changes were observed in the bone marrow of rats (parents and offspring) undergoing a one-generation reproduction test. DBDPO did not adversely affect development or reproduction in rats. DBDPO's no-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) in repeated dose studies was > or = 1000 mg/kg body weight. No, equivocal, or some evidence of carcinogenicity, dependent on genus and sex, was found in mice and rats at 2.5% and 5% of the diet administered for 2 years. DBPDO was poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (< 0.3-2% oral dose), had a short half-life (< 24 h) compared to PCB 153 (only 2% of an oral dose eliminated by rats in 21 days), and was rapidly eliminated via the feces (> 99% in 72 h). In contrast, components of the PeBDPO product were well absorbed and slowly eliminated, OBDPO's effect level in a 90-day study was approximately 100 mg/kg, PeBDPO's no-effect-level (NOEL) in a 30-day study was 1 mg/kg, and OBDPO induced developmental toxicity in the rat. In aquatic species, neither DBDPO nor OBDPO were toxic to aquatic organisms or bioconcentrating. Components of the PeBDPO product bioconcentrated in fish but produced little evidence of adverse effects.[1]


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