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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Oxidative metabolism modulates signal transduction and micronucleus formation in bystander cells from alpha-particle-irradiated normal human fibroblast cultures.

The role of oxidative metabolism in the up-regulation/activation of stress-induciblesignaling pathways as well as induction of micronucleus formation in bystander cells was investigated. By immunoblotting and in situ immunofluorescence, active Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme and active catalase enzyme were shown to inhibit the up-regulation of p21(Waf1) as well as the induction of micronucleus formation in bystander cells from confluent cultures of normal human diploid fibroblasts irradiated with 0.3-3 cGy of alpha-particles. Enzyme activity assays indicated that exogenous SOD became significantly associated with the cells. Reactive oxygen species apparently derived from a flavin-containing oxidase enzyme [presumably an NAD(P)H-oxidase] appeared to be major contributors to the bystander-induced up-regulation of p53 and p21(Waf1) as well as micronucleus formation, as evidenced by the inhibition of these effects with diphenyliodonium. Rapid activation of nuclear factor kappaB, Raf-1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen- activated protein kinase and their downstream effectors activator protein 1, ELK-1, p90RSK, and activating transcription factor 2 was also observed in cultures exposed to very low fluences of alpha-particles. Significant attenuation in the activation of these kinases and transcription factors occurred in irradiated cultures treated with either SOD or catalase. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that superoxide and hydrogen peroxide produced by flavin-containing oxidase enzymes mediate the activation of several stress-inducible signaling pathways as well as micronucleus formation in bystander cells from cultures of human cells exposed to low fluences of alpha-particles.[1]


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