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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Double blockade of cell cycle at g(1)-s transition and m phase by 3-iodoacetamido benzoyl ethyl ester, a new type of tubulin ligand.

3-Iodoacetamido benzoyl ethyl ester (3-IAABE) is a new compound synthesized in our laboratory. The primary action of 3-IAABE is to inhibit microtubule assembly by interacting with -SH groups on tubulin. In contrast to other known microtubule disrupters, 3-IAABE caused a double blockade in the cell cycle at G(1)-S transition and in M phase. The blockade was determined by cell cycle analysis and chromosome distribution. Kinase activities of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 responsible for the G(1)-S transition were increased, as were the activities of mitotic cyclin B and cdc2. 3-IAABE treatment also increased p53 expression and dephosphorylated (or activated) retinoblastoma protein. Investigation of the signal transduction pathway showed that 3-IAABE induced bcl-2 phosphorylation, followed by activation of caspase-9, -3, and -6, but not caspase-8. DNA fragmentation factor and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, the downstream substrates of caspase-3 and -6, were cleaved after 3 h of exposure to 3-IAABE, followed by DNA fragmentation. Pretreatment of the cells with inhibitors of caspase-9, -3, or -6, respectively, inhibited the cleavage of DNA fragmentation factor and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and thus inhibited the onset of apoptosis. 3-IAABE showed antitumor activities in the panel of 60 National Cancer Institute human tumor cell lines with total growth inhibition in the range of 0.22-4.3 micro M for solid tumor lines and 0.025-0.22 micro M for leukemia/lymphoma cell lines. The 3-IAABU total growth inhibition of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated healthy human lymphocytes was 450-fold greater than that of leukemic cells. 3-IAABE significantly inhibited the growth of human hepatocarcinoma (BEL-7402) in nude mice by 72% in tumor volume, more strongly than did vincristine (43 percent inhibition). Besides being a novel lead for the design of new anticancer tubulin ligands, the activity of 3-IAABE in the cell cycle may also help us to understand the molecular pharmacology of microtubule-active drugs.[1]


  1. Double blockade of cell cycle at g(1)-s transition and m phase by 3-iodoacetamido benzoyl ethyl ester, a new type of tubulin ligand. Jiang, J.D., Denner, L., Ling, Y.H., Li, J.N., Davis, A., Wang, Y., Li, Y., Roboz, J., Wang, L.G., Perez-Soler, R., Marcelli, M., Bekesi, G., Holland, J.F. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
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