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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cloning and expression of guanylin. Its existence in various mammalian tissues.

Guanylin (PNTCEICAYAACTGC) is a peptide recently isolated from the intestine, the actions of which appear to be mimicked by bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins (Currie, M. G., Fok, K. F., Kato, J., Moore, R. J., Hamra, F. K., Duffin, K. L., and Smith, C. E. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 947-951). A cDNA clone encoding the peptide was isolated from a rat intestinal cDNA library using a degenerate oligonucleotide probe. The mRNA (approximately 0.8-0.9 kilobase) encoding the peptide contained an open reading frame of 115 amino acids, including an amino-terminal signal peptide. The carboxyl-terminal region of the predicted polypeptide contained a sequence identical to guanylin, but the 15-amino acid peptide likely represents an artifact of previous acetic acid extraction methods, since an aspartate residue precedes the amino-terminal proline. A lysine-lysine dipeptide bond is one likely processing site of pro-guanylin and would generate a 60-amino acid mature peptide. Other potential cleavage sites exist at single lysine and arginine residues, which could result in peptides ranging from 22 to 56 amino acids. Transfection of COS-7 cells with the guanylin cDNA resulted in the expression of a secreted protein of M(r) 10,000. The expressed proguanylin failed to elevate cyclic GMP concentrations in human colonic T84 cells, but acetic acid treatment of pro-guanylin activated it and resulted in large elevations of cyclic GMP. Guanylin mRNA was prevalent in rat intestine but was also found in low abundance in adrenal gland, kidney, and uterus/oviduct. Guanylyl cyclase C, the apparent guanylin receptor, was found in abundant amounts in the intestine by Northern analysis, and by the polymerase chain reaction or cDNA cloning it was also found in adrenal gland, airway epithelial cells, brain, and olfactory and tracheal mucosa. Therefore, the ligand and apparent receptor (guanylyl cyclase C) both originate from mammalian genes, and are expressed in various mammalian tissues.[1]


  1. Cloning and expression of guanylin. Its existence in various mammalian tissues. Schulz, S., Chrisman, T.D., Garbers, D.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
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