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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT1-dependent genes by RET/ PTC (rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinoma) oncogenic tyrosine kinases.

Chimeric RET/ PTC (rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinoma) oncoproteins are constitutively active tyrosine kinases found in thyroid papillary carcinoma and nonneoplastic Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Although several proteins have been identified to be substrates of RET/PTC kinases, the pathogenic roles played by RET/ PTC in malignant and benign thyroid diseases and the molecular mechanisms that are involved are not fully understood. We found that RET/ PTC expression phosphorylates the Y701 residue of STAT1, a type II interferon (IFN)-responsive protein. RET/PTC- mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation requires RET/ PTC kinase activity to be intact but other tyrosine kinases, such as Janus kinases or c-Src, are not involved. RET/PTC- induced STAT1 transcriptional activation was not inhibited by suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 or -3, or protein inhibitors of activated STAT3 [(protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS3)], but PIAS1 strongly repressed the RET/ PTC- induced transcriptional activity of STAT1. RET/PTC- induced STAT1 activation caused IFN regulatory factor-1 expression. We found that STAT1 and IFN regulatory factor-1 cooperated to significantly increase transcription from type IV IFN-gamma responsive promoters of class II transactivator genes. Significantly, cells stably expressing RET/ PTC expressed class II transactivator and showed enhanced de novo membrane expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II proteins. Furthermore, RET/PTC1-bearing papillary thyroid carcinoma cells strongly expressed MHC class II (human leukocyte-associated antigen-DR alpha) genes, whereas the surrounding normal tissues did not. Thus, RET/ PTC is able to phosphorylate and activate STAT1. This may lead to enhanced MHC class II expression, which may explain why the tissues surrounding RET/ PTC-positive cancers are infiltrated with lymphocytes. Such immune response-promoting activity of RET/ PTC may also relate to the development of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.[1]

References

  1. Regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT1-dependent genes by RET/PTC (rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinoma) oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Hwang, E.S., Kim, D.W., Hwang, J.H., Jung, H.S., Suh, J.M., Park, Y.J., Chung, H.K., Song, J.H., Park, K.C., Park, S.H., Yun, H.J., Kim, J.M., Shong, M. Mol. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
 
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