The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

AC1L9JK9     [4-[(1R,2R,3R)-2- aminocarbonyl-3...

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of PTC


Psychiatry related information on PTC

  • Individual differences in taste perception have been explained in part by variations in peripheral innervation associated with the genetic ability to taste the bitter substances PTC and PROP [5].

High impact information on PTC


Chemical compound and disease context of PTC


Biological context of PTC


Anatomical context of PTC

  • PTC, a vertebrate homolog of this Drosophila gene, is genetically downstream of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in the limb bud [16].
  • We analyze PTC expression during chicken neural and somite development and find it expressed in all regions of these tissues known to be responsive to Sonic hedgehog signal [16].
  • As in the limb bud, ectopic expression of Sonic hedgehog leads to ectopic induction of PTC in the neural tube and paraxial mesoderm [16].
  • Primary cultures of human thyroid epithelial cells were infected with a RET/PTC retroviral construct [17].
  • A signaling pathway downstream of RET/ PTC leads to restructuring of the nuclear envelope and chromatin, and the signal does not depend entirely, if at all, on a RAS pathway [17].

Associations of PTC with other chemical compounds


Gene context of PTC

  • By combining expression profiles with mutational status, we defined distinct expression profiles for the BRAF, RET/PTC and RAS mutation groups [23].
  • Taken together, these results suggest that human thyroid cancers bearing RET/PTC rearrangements may use the CXCR4/SDF-1alpha receptor-ligand pathway to proliferate, survive and migrate [24].
  • We found that RET/PTC expression phosphorylates the Y701 residue of STAT1, a type II interferon (IFN)-responsive protein [25].
  • In this study, we show that RET/PTC associates with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and activates it by the specific phosphorylation of the tyrosine 705 residue [26].
  • Upregulation of CD44 was dependent on RET/PTC Y1062, as well [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PTC

  • Morphological scoring by two independent cytopathologists shows RET/PTC expression by immunohistochemistry to be highly associated (p << 0.0001) with an irregular nuclear contour and a euchromatic appearance compared with non-expressing cells in the same cultures [17].
  • The altered nuclear morphology is not due to gene transfer or transformation per se as primary thyroid cell cultures infected with a retroviral H-RAS construct differ from RET/PTC-infected cells by showing round nuclear envelopes and coarser chromatin, as determined by the independent scoring of two cytopathologists (p << 0.0001) [17].
  • In several independent RT-PCR experiments using different portions of the same positive carcinoma tissue, retTPC/PTC transcript was always detected [4].
  • A standard treatment approach was developed which consisted of ERCP for diagnosis, preoperative PTC with the placement of stents, CT drainage immediately after the PTC for drainage of biliary ascites, and usually Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy with placement of O-rings for future biliary access if necessary [27].
  • Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 by oncogenic RET/PTC (rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinoma) tyrosine kinase: roles in specific gene regulation and cellular transformation [26].


  1. PTC is a novel rearranged form of the ret proto-oncogene and is frequently detected in vivo in human thyroid papillary carcinomas. Grieco, M., Santoro, M., Berlingieri, M.T., Melillo, R.M., Donghi, R., Bongarzone, I., Pierotti, M.A., Della Porta, G., Fusco, A., Vecchio, G. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of an inversion on the long arm of chromosome 10 juxtaposing D10S170 and RET and creating the oncogenic sequence RET/PTC. Pierotti, M.A., Santoro, M., Jenkins, R.B., Sozzi, G., Bongarzone, I., Grieco, M., Monzini, N., Miozzo, M., Herrmann, M.A., Fusco, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. A thyroid tumor-specific antigen formed by the fusion of two self proteins. Powell, D.J., Eisenlohr, L.C., Rothstein, J.L. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Detection of retTPC/PTC transcripts in thyroid adenomas and adenomatous goiter by an RT-PCR method. Ishizaka, Y., Kobayashi, S., Ushijima, T., Hirohashi, S., Sugimura, T., Nagao, M. Oncogene (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. 'Thermal taste' predicts higher responsiveness to chemical taste and flavor. Green, B.G., George, P. Chem. Senses (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Mutations of the human homolog of Drosophila patched in the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Hahn, H., Wicking, C., Zaphiropoulous, P.G., Gailani, M.R., Shanley, S., Chidambaram, A., Vorechovsky, I., Holmberg, E., Unden, A.B., Gillies, S., Negus, K., Smyth, I., Pressman, C., Leffell, D.J., Gerrard, B., Goldstein, A.M., Dean, M., Toftgard, R., Chenevix-Trench, G., Wainwright, B., Bale, A.E. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Human homolog of patched, a candidate gene for the basal cell nevus syndrome. Johnson, R.L., Rothman, A.L., Xie, J., Goodrich, L.V., Bare, J.W., Bonifas, J.M., Quinn, A.G., Myers, R.M., Cox, D.R., Epstein, E.H., Scott, M.P. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic studies of follicular and papillary thyroid cancers. Herrmann, M.A., Hay, I.D., Bartelt, D.H., Ritland, S.R., Dahl, R.J., Grant, C.S., Jenkins, R.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. RET/PTC-induced dedifferentiation of thyroid cells is mediated through Y1062 signaling through SHC-RAS-MAP kinase. Knauf, J.A., Kuroda, H., Basu, S., Fagin, J.A. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Diabetic nephropathy: the central role of renal proximal tubular cells in tubulointerstitial injury. Phillips, A.O., Steadman, R. Histol. Histopathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Thyroid cancer nodal metastases: biologic significance and therapeutic considerations. Grebe, S.K., Hay, I.D. Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Breakpoint characterization of the ret/PTC oncogene in human papillary thyroid carcinoma. Smanik, P.A., Furminger, T.L., Mazzaferri, E.L., Jhiang, S.M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. The function and expansion of the Patched- and Hedgehog-related homologs in C. elegans. Zugasti, O., Rajan, J., Kuwabara, P.E. Genome Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Caveolin-1 and caveolin-2,together with three bone morphogenetic protein-related genes, may encode novel tumor suppressors down-regulated in sporadic follicular thyroid carcinogenesis. Aldred, M.A., Ginn-Pease, M.E., Morrison, C.D., Popkie, A.P., Gimm, O., Hoang-Vu, C., Krause, U., Dralle, H., Jhiang, S.M., Plass, C., Eng, C. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Nuclear envelope irregularity is induced by RET/PTC during interphase. Fischer, A.H., Taysavang, P., Jhiang, S.M. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of patched by sonic hedgehog in the developing neural tube. Marigo, V., Tabin, C.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Papillary thyroid carcinoma oncogene (RET/PTC) alters the nuclear envelope and chromatin structure. Fischer, A.H., Bond, J.A., Taysavang, P., Battles, O.E., Wynford-Thomas, D. Am. J. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Ras-mediated apoptosis of PC CL 3 rat thyroid cells induced by RET/PTC oncogenes. Castellone, M.D., Cirafici, A.M., De Vita, G., De Falco, V., Malorni, L., Tallini, G., Fagin, J.A., Fusco, A., Melillo, R.M., Santoro, M. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Autocrine stimulation by osteopontin plays a pivotal role in the expression of the mitogenic and invasive phenotype of RET/PTC-transformed thyroid cells. Castellone, M.D., Celetti, A., Guarino, V., Cirafici, A.M., Basolo, F., Giannini, R., Medico, E., Kruhoffer, M., Orntoft, T.F., Curcio, F., Fusco, A., Melillo, R.M., Santoro, M. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Spironolactone ameliorates renal injury and connective tissue growth factor expression in type II diabetic rats. Han, K.H., Kang, Y.S., Han, S.Y., Jee, Y.H., Lee, M.H., Han, J.Y., Kim, H.K., Kim, Y.S., Cha, D.R. Kidney Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Asymmetric phase-transfer catalyzed glycolate alkylation, investigation of the scope, and application to the synthesis of (-)-ragaglitazar. Andrus, M.B., Hicken, E.J., Stephens, J.C., Bedke, D.K. J. Org. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Computational studies of ligand-receptor interactions in bitter taste receptors. Miguet, L., Zhang, Z., Grigorov, M.G. J. Recept. Signal Transduct. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular classification of papillary thyroid carcinoma: distinct BRAF, RAS, and RET/PTC mutation-specific gene expression profiles discovered by DNA microarray analysis. Giordano, T.J., Kuick, R., Thomas, D.G., Misek, D.E., Vinco, M., Sanders, D., Zhu, Z., Ciampi, R., Roh, M., Shedden, K., Gauger, P., Doherty, G., Thompson, N.W., Hanash, S., Koenig, R.J., Nikiforov, Y.E. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Functional expression of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor is induced by RET/PTC oncogenes and is a common event in human papillary thyroid carcinomas. Castellone, M.D., Guarino, V., De Falco, V., Carlomagno, F., Basolo, F., Faviana, P., Kruhoffer, M., Orntoft, T., Russell, J.P., Rothstein, J.L., Fusco, A., Santoro, M., Melillo, R.M. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT1-dependent genes by RET/PTC (rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinoma) oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Hwang, E.S., Kim, D.W., Hwang, J.H., Jung, H.S., Suh, J.M., Park, Y.J., Chung, H.K., Song, J.H., Park, K.C., Park, S.H., Yun, H.J., Kim, J.M., Shong, M. Mol. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 by oncogenic RET/PTC (rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinoma) tyrosine kinase: roles in specific gene regulation and cellular transformation. Hwang, J.H., Kim, D.W., Suh, J.M., Kim, H., Song, J.H., Hwang, E.S., Park, K.C., Chung, H.K., Kim, J.M., Lee, T.H., Yu, D.Y., Shong, M. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Management of major biliary complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Branum, G., Schmitt, C., Baillie, J., Suhocki, P., Baker, M., Davidoff, A., Branch, S., Chari, R., Cucchiaro, G., Murray, E. Ann. Surg. (1993) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities