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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Bone morphogenetic proteins in craniofacial and periodontal tissue engineering: experimental studies in the non-human primate Papio ursinus.

The bone morphogenetic and osteogenic proteins (BMPs/OPs), pleiotropic members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) supergene family act as soluble signals for the de novo initiation of bone formation, sculpting the multicellular mineralized structures of the bone-bone marrow organ. The strikingly pleiotropic effects of BMPs/OPs spring from amino acid sequence variations in the carboxy-terminal domain and in the transduction of distinct signalling pathways by individual Smad proteins after transmembrane serine/threonine kinase complexes of type I and II receptors. BMPs/OPs are the common molecular initiators deployed for embryonic development and the induction of bone formation and regeneration in postnatal osteogenesis. Naturally derived BMPs/OPs extracted and purified from baboon and bovine bone matrices induce complete regeneration of non-healing calvarial defects in the non-human primate Papio ursinus as well as the induction of cementogenesis and the morphogenesis of a periodontal ligament system with a faithful insertion of Sharpey's fibers into the newly formed cementum. gamma-Irradiated recombinant human osteogenic protein-1 (hOP-1) delivered by xenogeneic bovine collagenous bone matrices completely regenerated and maintained the architecture of the induced bone after treatment of calvarial defects with single applications of doses of 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5mg hOP-1 per gram of carrier matrix. The long-term implantation of hOP-1 delivered by gamma-irradiated bovine bone matrices induced the regeneration of the three essential components of the periodontium, i.e. cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The osteogenic proteins of the TGF-beta superfamily are sculpting tissue constructs that engineer skeletal tissue regeneration in molecular terms. The pleiotropy of the signalling molecules of the TGF-beta superfamily is highlighted by the redundancy of molecular signals initiating bone formation, including the TGF-beta isoforms per se, powerful inducers of endochondral bone formation but in the primate only. The induction of bone develops a mosaic structure in which members of the TGF-beta superfamily singly, synergistically and synchronously initiate and maintain tissue induction and morphogenesis.[1]


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