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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The complete sequence of the bovine torovirus genome.

Viruses in the family Coronaviridae have elicited new interest, with the outbreaks caused by SARS-HCoV in 2003 and the recent discovery of a new human coronavirus, HCoV-NL63. The genus Torovirus, within the family Coronaviridae, is less well characterized, in part because toroviruses cannot yet be grown in cell culture (except for the Berne virus). In this study, we determined the sequence of the complete genome of Breda-1 (BoTV-1), a bovine torovirus. This is the first complete torovirus genome sequence to be reported. BoTV-1 RNA was amplified using long RT-PCR and the amplicons sequenced. The genome has a length of 28.475 kb and consisted mainly of the replicase gene ( approximately 20.2 kb) which contains two large overlapping ORFs, ORF1a and ORF1b, encoding polyproteins pp1a and pp1b, respectively. Sequence analysis identified conserved domains within the predicted sequences of pp1a and pp1b. Sequence alignments and protein secondary structure prediction data suggest the presence of a 3C-like serine protease domain with similarity to the arterivirus 3C-like serine protease and a single papain-like cysteine protease domain with similarity to the picornavirus leader protease. The ADRP (APPR-1'') domain - unique to the Coronaviridae - was also located in BoTV pp1a. In addition, several hydrophobic domains were identified that are typical of a nidovirus replicase. Within the pp1b sequence the polymerase and helicase domains were identified, as well as sequences predicted to be involved in ribosomal frameshifting, including the conserved slippery sequence UUUAAAC and two potential pseudoknot structures.[1]


  1. The complete sequence of the bovine torovirus genome. Draker, R., Roper, R.L., Petric, M., Tellier, R. Virus Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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