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Gene Review

PLIN2  -  perilipin 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ADFP, ADRP, Adipophilin, Adipose differentiation-related protein, Perilipin-2
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Disease relevance of ADFP


High impact information on ADFP

  • Therefore, we propose that milk fat globule secretion is controlled by interactions between plasma membrane butyrophilin and butyrophilin in the secretory granule phospholipid monolayer rather than binding of butyrophilin-xanthine oxidoreductase complexes to secretory granule adipophilin [5].
  • Multiple different point mutations within the coding sequence of the rhodopsin gene have been associated with ADRP [6].
  • The use of this assay to identify ADRP patients who have various rhodopsin mutations has allowed us to begin studies seeking to correlate molecular genotype with clinical phenotype [6].
  • These data provide definitive evidence for the localization of an ADRP gene on chromosome 17p [7].
  • However, mutation screening of the three exons of this gene failed to produce any evidence of recoverin being the gene involved in the pathogenesis of ADRP in this SA family [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of ADFP


Biological context of ADFP


Anatomical context of ADFP

  • Following incubation with oleic acid, ADFP null cells were able to form lipid droplets to the same extent as wt cells [14].
  • We demonstrate that ADRP mRNA and protein are regulated by fatty acids in a human placental choriocarcinoma cell line (BeWo) and in primary human trophoblasts [2].
  • Synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and retinoic X receptor agonists increased ADRP mRNA level but had no effect on ADRP protein level in undifferentiated BeWo cells [2].
  • We found no role for ADFP in the lipid transfer and conclude that a lipase associated with the lipid droplets hydrolyzes their core triacylglycerols, releasing fatty acids that are taken up by the epithelial cells [15].
  • The present studies were designed to test the role of ADFP in this transfer with the use of ADFP-coated lipid droplets from CHO fibroblast cells and a cultured human lung epithelial cell line [15].

Associations of ADFP with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of ADFP


Other interactions of ADFP

  • RESULTS: ADFP expression was apparently high in cases without a symptomatic presentation, as well as in cases of low-stage, low-grade, or VHL alteration-positive clear cell RCC, whereas it was down-regulated in undifferentiated tumors with a spindle/pleomorphic component or metastatic lesions [1].
  • Adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) is a lipid droplet-associated protein that has been ascribed a role in cellular fatty acid uptake and storage [2].
  • PPAR and adipophilin mRNA expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR [20].
  • TIP47 was found primarily in the cytosolic fractions of HeLa cells and murine MA10 Leydig cells grown in low lipid-containing culture medium, while ADRP was undetectable in these fractionated cell homogenates [17].
  • Consistent with the results of the microarray, increased levels of ADFP and NNMT mRNA were found more frequently in clear-cell RCCs than in other non-clear-cell tumour subtypes using real-time quantitative PCR [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ADFP

  • In ADFP null cells, Tip47 was identified as the sole lipid droplet-associated protein from the PAT family by mass spectroscopy, which was further confirmed by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry [14].
  • In HeLa cells grown in standard low lipid-containing culture media, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the cells had few lipid droplets; however, TIP47 and ADRP were found on the surfaces of the small lipid droplets present [17].
  • Using a novel approach that combines DNA chip analysis of tumor samples with isolation of peptides on the surface of tumor cells, a HLA-A*0201-binding peptide derived from the adipophilin protein was identified [22].
  • To further analyze the possible use of this peptide in immunotherapies of human malignancies, we induced adipophilin-specific CTLs using peripheral blood mononuclear cells and DCs from HLA-A*0201-positive patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia and plasma cell leukemia [22].
  • Interestingly, in patients responding to the treatment, T-cell responses to antigens not used for vaccinations, such as adipophilin, telomerase, or oncofetal antigen, could be detected, indicating that epitope spreading might occur [23].


  1. Expression of adipose differentiation-related protein: a predictor of cancer-specific survival in clear cell renal carcinoma. Yao, M., Huang, Y., Shioi, K., Hattori, K., Murakami, T., Nakaigawa, N., Kishida, T., Nagashima, Y., Kubota, Y. Clin. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of ADRP expression by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in BeWo cells, a human placental choriocarcinoma cell line. Tobin, K.A., Harsem, N.K., Dalen, K.T., Staff, A.C., Nebb, H.I., Duttaroy, A.K. J. Lipid Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. TIP47 is not a component of lipid droplets. Barbero, P., Buell, E., Zulley, S., Pfeffer, S.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Adipophilin is a specific marker of lipid accumulation in diverse cell types and diseases. Heid, H.W., Moll, R., Schwetlick, I., Rackwitz, H.R., Keenan, T.W. Cell Tissue Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Butyrophilin controls milk fat globule secretion. Robenek, H., Hofnagel, O., Buers, I., Lorkowski, S., Schnoor, M., Robenek, M.J., Heid, H., Troyer, D., Severs, N.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of novel rhodopsin mutations associated with retinitis pigmentosa by GC-clamped denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Sheffield, V.C., Fishman, G.A., Beck, J.S., Kimura, A.E., Stone, E.M. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. A new locus for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa on the short arm of chromosome 17. Greenberg, J., Goliath, R., Beighton, P., Ramesar, R. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Adipophilin increases triglyceride storage in human macrophages by stimulation of biosynthesis and inhibition of beta-oxidation. Larigauderie, G., Cuaz-Pérolin, C., Younes, A.B., Furman, C., Lasselin, C., Copin, C., Jaye, M., Fruchart, J.C., Rouis, M. FEBS J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Genes of cholesterol metabolism in human atheroma: overexpression of perilipin and genes promoting cholesterol storage and repression of ABCA1 expression. Forcheron, F., Legedz, L., Chinetti, G., Feugier, P., Letexier, D., Bricca, G., Beylot, M. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Gene expression analysis of renal carcinoma: adipose differentiation-related protein as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for clear-cell renal carcinoma. Yao, M., Tabuchi, H., Nagashima, Y., Baba, M., Nakaigawa, N., Ishiguro, H., Hamada, K., Inayama, Y., Kishida, T., Hattori, K., Yamada-Okabe, H., Kubota, Y. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Spatial integration of TIP47 and adipophilin in macrophage lipid bodies. Robenek, H., Lorkowski, S., Schnoor, M., Troyer, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. A proposed model of fat packaging by exchangeable lipid droplet proteins. Wolins, N.E., Brasaemle, D.L., Bickel, P.E. FEBS Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Lipid droplet and milk lipid globule membrane associated placental protein 17b (PP17b) is involved in apoptotic and differentiation processes of human epithelial cervical carcinoma cells. Than, N.G., Sumegi, B., Bellyei, S., Berki, T., Szekeres, G., Janaky, T., Szigeti, A., Bohn, H., Than, G.N. Eur. J. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Functional Compensation for Adipose Differentiation-related Protein (ADFP) by Tip47 in an ADFP Null Embryonic Cell Line. Sztalryd, C., Bell, M., Lu, X., Mertz, P., Hickenbottom, S., Chang, B.H., Chan, L., Kimmel, A.R., Londos, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Role of adipose differentiation-related protein in lung surfactant production: a reassessment. Magra, A.L., Mertz, P.S., Torday, J.S., Londos, C. J. Lipid Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Molecular control of ovulation and luteinization in the primate follicle. Stouffer, R.L., Xu, F., Duffy, D.M. Front. Biosci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. TIP47 associates with lipid droplets. Wolins, N.E., Rubin, B., Brasaemle, D.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. The lipid droplet-associated protein adipophilin is expressed in human trophoblasts and is regulated by peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma/retinoid X receptor. Bildirici, I., Roh, C.R., Schaiff, W.T., Lewkowski, B.M., Nelson, D.M., Sadovsky, Y. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Decrease in intramuscular lipid droplets and translocation of HSL in response to muscle contraction and epinephrine. Prats, C., Donsmark, M., Qvortrup, K., Londos, C., Sztalryd, C., Holm, C., Galbo, H., Ploug, T. J. Lipid Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor expression and activation in normal human colonic epithelial cells and tubular adenomas. Matthiessen, M.W., Pedersen, G., Albrektsen, T., Adamsen, S., Fleckner, J., Brynskov, J. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Insulin and fatty acids regulate the expression of the fat droplet-associated protein adipophilin in primary human trophoblasts. Elchalal, U., Schaiff, W.T., Smith, S.D., Rimon, E., Bildirici, I., Nelson, D.M., Sadovsky, Y. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Induction of adipophilin-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes using a novel HLA-A2-binding peptide that mediates tumor cell lysis. Schmidt, S.M., Schag, K., Müller, M.R., Weinschenk, T., Appel, S., Schoor, O., Weck, M.M., Grünebach, F., Kanz, L., Stevanovic, S., Rammensee, H.G., Brossart, P. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Immunologic and clinical responses after vaccinations with peptide-pulsed dendritic cells in metastatic renal cancer patients. Wierecky, J., Müller, M.R., Wirths, S., Halder-Oehler, E., Dörfel, D., Schmidt, S.M., Häntschel, M., Brugger, W., Schröder, S., Horger, M.S., Kanz, L., Brossart, P. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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