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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Glycoprotein biosynthesis: studies on thyroid mannosyltransferases. II. Characterization of a polyisoprenyl mannosyl phosphate and evaluation of its intermediary role in the glycosylation of exogenous acceptors.

The transfer of mannose from GDP-mannonse to exogenous glycopeptides and simple glycosides has been shown to be carried out by calf thyroid particles (Adamany, A. M., and Spiro, R. G. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 2830-2841). The present investigation indicates that this mannosylation process is accomplished through two sequential enzymatic reactions. The first involves the transfer of mannose from the sugar nucleotide to an endogenous acceptor to form a compound which has the properties of dolichyl mannosyl phosphate, while in the properties of dolichyl mannosyl phosphate, while in the second reaction this mannolipid serves as the glycosyl donor to exogenous acceptors. The particle-bound enzyme which catalyzed the first reaction utilized GDP-mannose (Km = 0.29 microM) as the most effective mannosyl donor, required a divalent cation, preferably manganese or calcium, and acted optimally at pH 6. 3. Mannolipid synthesis was reversed by addition of GDP and a ready exchange of the mannose moiety was observed between [14C]mannolipid and unlabeled GDP-mannose. Exogenously supplied dolichyl phosphate, and to a lesser extent ficaprenyl phosphate, served as acceptors for the transfer reaction. The 14C-labeled endogenous lipid had the same chromatographic behavior as synthetic dolichyl mannosyl phosphate and enzymatically mannosylated dolichyl phosphate. The mannose component in the endogenous lipid was not susceptible to reduction with sodium borohydride and was released by mild acid hydrolysis. Alkaline treatment of the mannolipid released a phosphorylated mannose with properties consistent with that of mannose 2-phosphate. The formation of this compound which can arise from a cyclic 1,2-phosphate indicated, on the basis of steric considerations, that the mannose is present in beta linkage to the phosphate of the lipid. An intermediate role of the mannolipid in the glycosylation of exogenous acceptors was suggested by the observation that addition of dolichyl phosphate to thyroid particles resulted in a marked enhancement of mannose transfer from GDP-mannose to methyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside acceptor while the presence of the glycoside caused a decrease in the mannolipid level. The glycosyl donor function of the polyisoprenyl mannosyl phosphate in the second reaction of the mannosylation sequence could be directly demonstrated by the transfer of [14C]mannose from purified endogenous mannolipid to either methyl-alpha-D-mannoside or dinitrophenyl unit A glycopeptides by thyroid enzyme in the presence of Triton X-100. The mannosylation of the glycoside was not inhibited by EDTA whereas the transfer of mannose to glycopeptide was cation-dependent. While dolichyl [14C]mannosyl phosphate, prepared from exogenous dolichyl phosphate, served as a donor of mannose to exogenous acceptor, this function could not be fulfilled by ficaprenyl [14C]mannosyl phosphate. The two-step reaction sequence carried out by thyroid enzymes which leads to the formation of an alpha-D-manno-pyranosyl-D-mannose linkage in exogenous acceptors by transfer of mannose from GDP-mannose through a beta-linked intermediate appears to involve a double inversion of anomeric configuration of this sugar.[1]


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