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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Linkage assignment of a DNA sequence (ERCC2L1) homologous to a human DNA repair gene in Xiphophorus fishes: implications for the evolutionary derivation of human chromosome 19.

Fish gene mapping studies have identified several syntenic groups showing conservation over more than 400 million years of vertebrate evolution. In particular, Xiphophorus linkage group IV has been identified as a homolog of human chromosomes 15 and 19. During mammalian evolution, loci coding for glucosephosphate isomerase, peptidase D, muscle creatine kinase, and several DNA repair genes (ERCC1, ERCC2, and XRCC1) appear as a conserved syntenic group on human chromosome 19. When X. clemenciae and X. milleri PstI endonuclease-digested genomic DNA was used in Southern analysis with a human ERCC2 DNA repair gene probe, a strongly cross-hybridizing restriction fragment length polymorphism was observed. Backcrosses to X. clemenciae from X. milleri x X. clemenciae F1 hybrids allowed tests for linkage of the ERCC2-like polymorphism to markers covering a large proportion of the genome. Statistically significant evidence for linkage was found only for ERCC2L1 and CKM (muscle creatine kinase), with a total of 41 parents and 2 recombinants (4.7% recombination, chi 2 = 35.37, P less than 0.001); no evidence for linkage to GPI and PEPD in linkage group IV was detected. The human chromosome 19 synteny of ERCC2 and CKM thus appears to be conserved in Xiphophorus, while other genes located nearby on human chromosome 19 are in a separate linkage group in this fish. If Xiphophorus gene arrangements prove to be primitive, human chromosome 19 may have arisen from chromosome fusion or translocation events at some point since divergence of mammals and fishes from a common ancestor.[1]


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