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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Roles of protein kinase C, Ca2+, Pyk2, and c-Src in agonist activation of rat lacrimal gland p42/p44 MAPK.

PURPOSE: Although p42/p44 mitogen- activated protein kinase ( MAPK) negatively modulates protein secretion stimulated by cholinergic and alpha(1D)-adrenergic agonists, it does not play a role in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated protein secretion. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the roles that protein kinase C (PKC), intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)), and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases Pyk2 and Src play in the activation of agonist- and EGF- stimulated MAPK activation. METHODS: Lacrimal gland acini were isolated by collagenase digestion and incubated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to activate PKC or ionomycin, a Ca(2+) ionophore. Acini were preincubated with the PKC inhibitors calphostin C or Ro-31-8220, EGTA to chelate Ca(2+), or the c-Src inhibitor PP1 before stimulation with the cholinergic agonist carbachol, the alpha(1D)-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine, or EGF. Activated MAPK, Pyk2, and c-Src amounts were measured by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: PMA and ionomycin significantly increased the activation of MAPK in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of PKC partially inhibited carbachol- stimulated MAPK activation while completely inhibiting phenylephrine- and EGF- stimulated MAPK activation. Chelation of Ca(2+) also partially inhibited carbachol-stimulated MAPK with no effect on phenylephrine- and EGF- stimulated MAPK activation. Carbachol increased the phosphorylation of Pyk2 on tyrosine 402 and c-src on tyrosine 416 in a time-dependent manner. The c-src inhibitor PP1 inhibited carbachol- stimulated phosphorylation of Pyk2. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that cholinergic agonists use Ca(2+) and PKC to phosphorylate Pyk2 and c-Src, which subsequently stimulate MAPK activity. In contrast, alpha(1D)-adrenergic agonists and EGF do not use Pyk2 and Src but do use PKC to activate MAPK.[1]


  1. Roles of protein kinase C, Ca2+, Pyk2, and c-Src in agonist activation of rat lacrimal gland p42/p44 MAPK. Hodges, R.R., Rios, J.D., Vrouvlianis, J., Ota, I., Zoukhri, D., Dartt, D.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
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