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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism by 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol.

In hepatocytes isolated from fasted rats, 2,5-anhydromannitol inhibits gluconeogenesis from lactate plus pyruvate and from substrates that enter the gluconeogenic pathway as triose phosphate. This fructose analog has no effect, however, on gluconeogenesis from xylitol, a substrate that enters the pathway primarily as fructose 6-phosphate. The sensitivity of gluconeogenesis to 2,5-anhydromannitol depends on the substrate metabolized; concentrations of 2,5-anhydromannitol required for 50% inhibition increase in the order lactate plus pyruvate less than dihydroxyacetone less than glycerol less than sorbitol less than fructose. The inhibition by 2,5-anhydromannitol of gluconeogenesis from dihydroxyacetone is accompanied by an increase in lactate formation and by two distinct crossovers in gluconeogenic-glycolytic metabolite patterns-i.e., increases in pyruvate concentrations with decreases in phosphoenolpyruvate and increases in fructose-1,6-bisphosphate concentrations with little change in fructose 6-phosphate. In addition, 2,5-anhydromannitol blocks the ability of glucagon to stimulate gluconeogenesis and inhibit lactate production from dihydroxyacetone. 2,5-Anhydromannitol decreases cellular fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content in hepatocytes; therefore the effects of the fructose analog are not mediated by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, a naturally occurring allosteric regulator. 2,5-Anhydromannitol also inhibits gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes isolated from fasted diabetic rats, but higher concentrations of the analog are required.[1]


  1. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism by 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol. Riquelme, P.T., Wernette-Hammond, M.E., Kneer, N.M., Lardy, H.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
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