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MeSH Review

Carbohydrate Metabolism

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Disease relevance of Carbohydrate Metabolism


Psychiatry related information on Carbohydrate Metabolism


High impact information on Carbohydrate Metabolism


Chemical compound and disease context of Carbohydrate Metabolism


Biological context of Carbohydrate Metabolism


Anatomical context of Carbohydrate Metabolism


Associations of Carbohydrate Metabolism with chemical compounds


Gene context of Carbohydrate Metabolism

  • This Review will focus on the role of PPARgamma in human physiology, with specific reference to clinical pharmacological studies, and analysis of PPARG gene variants in the abnormal lipid and carbohydrate metabolism of the metabolic syndrome [31].
  • Molecular phenotyping of the pal1 and pal2 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana reveals far-reaching consequences on phenylpropanoid, amino acid, and carbohydrate metabolism [32].
  • Like Akt1, Akt3 is not required for the maintenance of normal carbohydrate metabolism but is essential for the attainment of normal organ size [33].
  • Examination of the effects of csrA on several enzymes, genes, and metabolites of central carbohydrate metabolism now establishes a more extensive role for csrA in directing intracellular carbon flux [34].
  • These data indicate that NO plays a role in modulating insulin sensitivity and carbohydrate metabolism and that the eNOS isoform may play a dominant role relative to nNOS [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Carbohydrate Metabolism


  1. Postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Role of hepatic and extrahepatic tissues. Firth, R.G., Bell, P.M., Marsh, H.M., Hansen, I., Rizza, R.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Treatment of resistant acromegaly with a long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995). Barnard, L.B., Grantham, W.G., Lamberton, P., O'Dorisio, T.M., Jackson, I.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Left ventricular diastolic function in hypertension and role of plasma glucose and insulin. Comparison with diabetic heart. Jain, A., Avendano, G., Dharamsey, S., Dasmahapatra, A., Agarwal, R., Reddi, A., Regan, T. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Human glucokinase gene: isolation, characterization, and identification of two missense mutations linked to early-onset non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus. Stoffel, M., Froguel, P., Takeda, J., Zouali, H., Vionnet, N., Nishi, S., Weber, I.T., Harrison, R.W., Pilkis, S.J., Lesage, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Influence of hydrazine sulfate on abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in cancer patients with weight loss. Chlebowski, R.T., Heber, D., Richardson, B., Block, J.B. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Biological studies on the effects of some therapeutic procedures used in psychiatry. Zsadányi, O. Acta physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Insights into cellular energy metabolism from transgenic mice. Koretsky, A.P. Physiol. Rev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Insulin resistance and the polycystic ovary syndrome: mechanism and implications for pathogenesis. Dunaif, A. Endocr. Rev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Human growth hormone. Strobl, J.S., Thomas, M.J. Pharmacol. Rev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. In vivo carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance studies of mammals. Alger, J.R., Sillerud, L.O., Behar, K.L., Gillies, R.J., Shulman, R.G., Gordon, R.E., Shae, D., Hanley, P.E. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Genome-wide location and regulated recruitment of the RSC nucleosome-remodeling complex. Ng, H.H., Robert, F., Young, R.A., Struhl, K. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. The hprK gene of Enterococcus faecalis encodes a novel bifunctional enzyme: the HPr kinase/phosphatase. Kravanja, M., Engelmann, R., Dossonnet, V., Blüggel, M., Meyer, H.E., Frank, R., Galinier, A., Deutscher, J., Schnell, N., Hengstenberg, W. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Lactic acidosis during sepsis is related to increased pyruvate production, not deficits in tissue oxygen availability. Gore, D.C., Jahoor, F., Hibbert, J.M., DeMaria, E.J. Ann. Surg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Dietary fiber in management of diabetes. Vinik, A.I., Jenkins, D.J. Diabetes Care (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of nifedipine on carbohydrate metabolism and serum lipoproteins in hypertensive patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Benaim, M.E., Macdonald, G. Eur. Heart J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Metabolic effects of the nocturnal rise in cortisol on carbohydrate metabolism in normal humans. Dinneen, S., Alzaid, A., Miles, J., Rizza, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Long-term alcohol intake enhances ADP-ribosylation of the multifunctional enzyme, phosphoglucomutase, in rat liver. Nomura, F., Noda, M., Miyake, M., Nakai, T. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of diabetes, insulin, starvation, and refeeding on the level of rat hepatic fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Neely, P., El-Maghrabi, M.R., Pilkis, S.J., Claus, T.H. Diabetes (1981) [Pubmed]
  19. Nitrogen metabolism and insulin requirements in obese diabetic adults on a protein-sparing modified fast. Bistrian, B.R., Blackburn, G.L., Flatt, J.P., Sizer, J., Scrimshaw, N.S., Sherman, M. Diabetes (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. The role of calcium ion as a mediator of the effects of angiotensin II, catecholamines, and vasopressin on the phosphorylation and activity of enzymes in isolated hepatocytes. Garrison, J.C., Borland, M.K., Florio, V.A., Twible, D.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  21. Maternal relaxin concentrations in diabetic pregnancy. Steinetz, B.G., Whitaker, P.G., Edwards, J.R. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Do pancreatic islets contain significant amounts of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase or ferroactivator activity? MacDonald, M.J., Chang, C.M. Diabetes (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of modulation of glycerol kinase expression on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in human muscle cells. Montell, E., Lerín, C., Newgard, C.B., Gómez-Foix, A.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification of a novel class of target genes and a novel type of binding sequence of heat shock transcription factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yamamoto, A., Mizukami, Y., Sakurai, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Polymorphisms of GLUT2 and GLUT4 genes. Use in evaluation of genetic susceptibility to NIDDM in blacks. Matsutani, A., Koranyi, L., Cox, N., Permutt, M.A. Diabetes (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Hormonal control of ketogenesis. Rapid activation of hepatic ketogenic capacity in fed rats by anti-insulin serum and glucagon. McGarry, J., Wright, P.H., Foster, D.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. A novel G protein-coupled receptor mediating both vasopressin- and oxytocin-like functions of Lys-conopressin in Lymnaea stagnalis. van Kesteren, R.E., Tensen, C.P., Smit, A.B., van Minnen, J., van Soest, P.F., Kits, K.S., Meyerhof, W., Richter, D., van Heerikhuizen, H., Vreugdenhil, E. Neuron (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of low-dose bradykinin on glucose metabolism and nitrogen balance in surgical patients. Hartl, W., Jauch, K.W., Herndon, D.N., Cohnert, T.U., Wolfe, R.R., Schildberg, F.W. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Influence of oral contraceptives, pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and tryptophan on carbohydrate metabolism. Adams, P.W., Wynn, V., Folkard, J., Seed, M. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Sensitivity to enkephalin as a cause of non-insulin dependent diabetes. Leslie, R.D., Pyke, D.A., Stubbs, W.A. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  31. PPAR gamma and human metabolic disease. Semple, R.K., Chatterjee, V.K., O'Rahilly, S. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Molecular phenotyping of the pal1 and pal2 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana reveals far-reaching consequences on phenylpropanoid, amino acid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Rohde, A., Morreel, K., Ralph, J., Goeminne, G., Hostyn, V., De Rycke, R., Kushnir, S., Van Doorsselaere, J., Joseleau, J.P., Vuylsteke, M., Van Driessche, G., Van Beeumen, J., Messens, E., Boerjan, W. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Role for Akt3/protein kinase Bgamma in attainment of normal brain size. Easton, R.M., Cho, H., Roovers, K., Shineman, D.W., Mizrahi, M., Forman, M.S., Lee, V.M., Szabolcs, M., de Jong, R., Oltersdorf, T., Ludwig, T., Efstratiadis, A., Birnbaum, M.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Pleiotropic regulation of central carbohydrate metabolism in Escherichia coli via the gene csrA. Sabnis, N.A., Yang, H., Romeo, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Mice with gene disruption of both endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase exhibit insulin resistance. Shankar, R.R., Wu, Y., Shen, H.Q., Zhu, J.S., Baron, A.D. Diabetes (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Lack of dietary regulation of jejunal glycolytic enzymes and disaccharidases in obesity: the role of insulin. Dubois, R., Gotlin, R.W., Rodgerson, D.O. Gastroenterology (1975) [Pubmed]
  37. Effect of troglitazone on B cell function, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prigeon, R.L., Kahn, S.E., Porte, D. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. The effects of transdermal estradiol and oral conjugated estrogens on haemostasis variables. Kroon, U.B., Silfverstolpe, G., Tengborn, L. Thromb. Haemost. (1994) [Pubmed]
  39. Capsaicin and glucose absorption and utilization in healthy human subjects. Dömötör, A., Szolcsányi, J., Mózsik, G. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  40. Carbohydrate metabolism and endocrine function in the pancreas remnant after major pancreatic resection. Mizumoto, R., Kawarada, Y., Goshima, H., Tamaki, H., Sekoguchi, T., Tomikawa, I. Am. J. Surg. (1982) [Pubmed]
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