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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Tissue distribution of ryanodine receptor isoforms and alleles determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

The tissue distribution of mRNA for ryanodine receptor ( ryr) isoforms in various porcine tissues has been determined using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). First strand cDNA was synthesized from total tissue RNA with reverse transcriptase and random hexamer primers. PCR primers were selected to amplify an approximately 500-base pair segment from homologous regions near the 5' end of the skeletal (ryr1), cardiac (ryr2), or brain (ryr3) ryr cDNA sequences. The specific amplification of each of the ryr isoforms was confirmed by restriction enzyme mapping and DNA sequencing. A ryr1 RT-PCR product was identified in skeletal muscle and esophagus, a ryr2 RT-PCR product was identified in cardiac muscle, aorta and esophagus, and a ryr3 RT-PCR product was identified in skeletal and cardiac muscle, aorta, esophagus, adrenal gland, small intestine, and lung. All three ryr isoforms were identified throughout the brain, including the parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes of the cerebrum, thalamus/hypothalamus, cerebellum, and brain stem. The normal (Arg615) and mutant (Cys615) ryr1 alleles were expressed in the brains of normal and malignant hyperthermia susceptible pigs, respectively. These results thus demonstrate expression of two ryr isoforms in each type of striated muscle, and all ryr isoforms in a number of regions of the nervous system. The wide distribution of ryr1 in the brain provides a possible neurogenic etiology of malignant hyperthermia.[1]


  1. Tissue distribution of ryanodine receptor isoforms and alleles determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Ledbetter, M.W., Preiner, J.K., Louis, C.F., Mickelson, J.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
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