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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Bradykinin B2-receptor activation augments norepinephrine exocytosis from cardiac sympathetic nerve endings. Mediation by autocrine/paracrine mechanisms.

We determined whether local bradykinin production modulates cardiac adrenergic activity. Depolarization of guinea pig heart sympathetic nerve endings (synaptosomes) with 1 to 100 mmol/L K+ caused the release of endogenous norepinephrine (10% to 50% above basal level). This release was exocytotic, because it depended on extracellular Ca2+, was inhibited by the N-type Ca(2+)-channel blocker omega-conotoxin and the protein kinase C inhibitor Ro31-8220, and was potentiated by the neuronal uptake-1 inhibitor desipramine. Typical of adrenergic terminals, norepinephrine exocytosis was enhanced by activation of prejunctional angiotensin AT1-receptors and attenuated by adrenergic alpha 2-receptors, adenosine A1-receptors, and histamine H3-receptors. Exogenous bradykinin enhanced norepinephrine exocytosis by 7% to 35% (EC50, 17 nmol/L), without inhibiting uptake 1. B2-receptor, but not B1-receptor, blockade antagonized this effect. The kininase II/angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat and the addition of kininogen or kallikrein enhanced norepinephrine exocytosis by approximately equal to 6% to 40% (EC50, 20 nmol/L) and approximately equal to 25% to 60%, respectively. This potentiation was prevented by serine protease inhibitors and was antagonized by B2-receptor blockade. Therefore, norepinephrine exocytosis is augmented when bradykinin synthesis is increased or when its breakdown is inhibited. This is the first report of a local kallikrein-kinin system in adrenergic nerve endings capable of generating enough bradykinin to activate B2-receptors in an autocrine/paracrine fashion and thus enhance norepinephrine exocytosis. This amplification process may operate in disease states, such as myocardial ischemia, associated with severalfold increases in local kinin concentrations.[1]


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