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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Early E-selectin, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and late major histocompatibility complex antigen induction on human endothelial cells by flavivirus and comodulation of adhesion molecule expression by immune cytokines.

Expression of E-selectin (ELAM-1, CD62E) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells significantly increased 30 min postinfection with the flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV), was maximal by 2 h postinfection, and declined to baseline levels within 24 h. Expression of ICAM-1 (CD54) and VCAM-1 ( CD106) was significantly increased by 2 h and maximal at 4 h after infection. P-selectin (CD62P) expression was unaffected by WNV. Upregulation occurred earlier than that caused by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) or interleukin 1 ( IL-1) and could not be inhibited by neutralizing TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha, or alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) antibodies, suggesting a direct, virus-mediated phenomenon. TNF-alpha significantly enhanced WNV-induced increases in E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 expression, while IFN-gamma enhanced WNV- induced ICAM-1 expression. In contrast, IL-4 abrogated WNV- induced E-selectin expression increases but acted in synergy with WNV to increase P-selectin and VCAM-1 expression. WNV increased the expression of class I and II major histocompatibility complex antigens (MHC-I and MHC-II, respectively) at 24 and 72 h, respectively. IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, or IL-1 acted in synergy with WNV to produce greater increases in MHC-I expression than WNV or cytokines alone, while IFN-alpha/beta or IL-4 had no effect. MHC-II induction in cytokine-treated, WNV-infected cells was similar to that caused by cytokines alone. Neutralizing IFN-alpha/beta antibody inhibited WNV-induced MHC-I expression by 30% at 24 h and by 100% by 72 h. The differential kinetics of modulation suggest sequential adhesion of leukocyte subpopulations to infected endothelial cells, which may be important in initial viral spread in vivo.[1]


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