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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

cDNA cloning and characterization of a cis-retinol/3alpha-hydroxysterol short-chain dehydrogenase.

We report a mouse cDNA that encodes a 317-amino acid short-chain dehydrogenase which recognizes as substrates 9-cis-retinol, 11-cis-retinol, 5alpha-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol, and 5alpha-androstan-3alpha-ol-17-one. This cis-retinol/androgen dehydrogenase (CRAD) shares closest amino acid similarity with mouse retinol dehydrogenase isozymes types 1 and 2 (86 and 91%, respectively). Recombinant CRAD uses NAD+ as its preferred cofactor and exhibits cooperative kinetics for cis-retinoids, but Michaelis-Menten kinetics for 3alpha-hydroxysterols. Unlike recombinant retinol dehydrogenase isozymes, recombinant CRAD was inhibited by 4-methylpyrazole, was not stimulated by ethanol, and did not require phosphatidylcholine for optimal activity. CRAD mRNA was expressed intensely in kidney and liver, in contrast to retinol dehydrogenase isozymes, which show strong mRNA expression only in liver. CRAD mRNA expression was widespread (relative abundance): kidney (100) > liver (92) > small intestine (9) = heart (9) > retinal pigment epithelium and sclera (4.5) > brain (2) > retina and vitreous (1.6) > spleen (0.7) > testis (0.6) > lung (0.4). CRAD may catalyze the first step in an enzymatic pathway from 9-cis-retinol to generate the retinoid X receptor ligand 9-cis-retinoic acid and/or may regenerate dihydrotestosterone from its catabolite 5alpha-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol. These data also illustrate the multifunctional nature of short-chain dehydrogenases and provide a potential mechanism for androgen-retinoid interactions.[1]

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