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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

G protein-coupled receptors in HIV and SIV entry: new perspectives on lentivirus-host interactions and on the utility of animal models.

Entry of primate lentiviruses into target cells has recently been shown to depend upon the interaction of the viral envelope glycoprotein with CD4 and one or more members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family of transmembrane proteins. In vivo, the transmission of HIV-1 infection generally requires viral strains that utilise chemokine recep- tor CCR5, and these strains prevail during the early course of infection. Strains isolated later, in the course of progression to immunodeficiency, are often CXCR4-tropic or are dual tropic for both chemokine receptors. SIV isolates also use CCR5 but are only rarely specific for CXCR4. Instead, SIVs use two orphan members of the GPCR family, named Bonzo/STRL33/TYMSTR and BOB/GPR15. Strains of HIV-2, which are closely related to the SIVs, also often utilise CXCR4, CCR5, BOB and/or Bonzo. Additional GPCR family members have also been shown to be utilised by various strains of HIV and SIV, albeit less efficiently and less frequently. Here we discuss the potential relationship between receptor specificity and viral pathogenesis as well as efforts to develop animal model systems to study the mechanism of disease progression.[1]


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