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Gene Review

GPR15  -  G protein-coupled receptor 15

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BoB, Brother of Bonzo, G-protein coupled receptor 15
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Disease relevance of GPR15


High impact information on GPR15

  • Here we show that two orphan seven-transmembrane segment receptors, gpr1 and gpr15, serve as coreceptors for SIV, and are expressed in human alveolar macrophages [4].
  • The more efficient of these, gpr15, is also expressed in human CD4(+) T lymphocytes and activated rhesus macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells [4].
  • Human-derived STRL33 (BONZO) and human-derived GPR-15 (BOB) are also used, but with variable efficiency [5].
  • Eleven of sixteen substitutions disrupted entry via CCR5 or the alternative coreceptor GPR15 [6].
  • Our data show that some HIV-1 isolates of different genetic subtype and of different biological phenotype use BOB/GPR15 for productive infection and suggest that this cofactor may play a role in HIV-1 pathogenesis and transmission [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of GPR15


Biological context of GPR15


Anatomical context of GPR15


Other interactions of GPR15

  • The sequence of three cynomolgus macaque receptors, CCR3, GPR15, and STRL33, are presented in this sequence note [10].
  • Neutralizing antibodies to GPR15/Bob but not to CXCR4 (the coreceptor allowing infection with these HIV strains) inhibited these effects [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GPR15

  • Using primers based on conserved regions of the opioid-related receptors, we isolated a PCR product that was used to locate the full-length coding region of a novel human receptor gene, which we have named GPR15 [9].


  1. CCR5, GPR15, and CXCR6 are major coreceptors of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 variants isolated from individuals with and without plasma viremia. Blaak, H., Boers, P.H., Gruters, R.A., Schuitemaker, H., van der Ende, M.E., Osterhaus, A.D. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Coreceptor usage of BOB/GPR15 and Bonzo/STRL33 by primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Pöhlmann, S., Krumbiegel, M., Kirchhoff, F. J. Gen. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Use of GPR1, GPR15, and STRL33 as coreceptors by diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus envelope proteins. Edinger, A.L., Hoffman, T.L., Sharron, M., Lee, B., O'Dowd, B., Doms, R.W. Virology (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Two orphan seven-transmembrane segment receptors which are expressed in CD4-positive cells support simian immunodeficiency virus infection. Farzan, M., Choe, H., Martin, K., Marcon, L., Hofmann, W., Karlsson, G., Sun, Y., Barrett, P., Marchand, N., Sullivan, N., Gerard, N., Gerard, C., Sodroski, J. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. The function of simian chemokine receptors in the replication of SIV. Marx, P.A., Chen, Z. Semin. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Amino acid 324 in the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac V3 loop can confer CD4 independence and modulate the interaction with CCR5 and alternative coreceptors. Pöhlmann, S., Davis, C., Meister, S., Leslie, G.J., Otto, C., Reeves, J.D., Puffer, B.A., Papkalla, A., Krumbiegel, M., Marzi, A., Lorenz, S., Münch, J., Doms, R.W., Kirchhoff, F. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. The virotoxin model of HIV-1 enteropathy: involvement of GPR15/Bob and galactosylceramide in the cytopathic effects induced by HIV-1 gp120 in the HT-29-D4 intestinal cell line. Maresca, M., Mahfoud, R., Garmy, N., Kotler, D.P., Fantini, J., Clayton, F. J. Biomed. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Co-receptor usage of BOB/GPR15 in addition to CCR5 has no significant effect on replication of simian immunodeficiency virus in vivo. Pöhlmann, S., Stolte, N., Münch, J., Ten Haaft, P., Heeney, J.L., Stahl-Hennig, C., Kirchhoff, F. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. A novel human gene encoding a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR15) is located on chromosome 3. Heiber, M., Marchese, A., Nguyen, T., Heng, H.H., George, S.R., O'Dowd, B.F. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Cloning and sequencing of cynomolgus macaque CCR3, GPR15, and STRL33: potential coreceptors for HIV type 1, HIV type 2, and SIV. Wade-Evans, A.M., Russell, J., Jenkins, A., Javan, C. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (2001) [Pubmed]
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