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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effects of thrombopoietin, interleukin-3 and the kinase inhibitor K-252a on growth and polyploidization of the megakaryocytic cell line M-07e.

Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a recently cloned growth and differentiation factor implicated in megakaryocytopoiesis. Here, we show that TPO, interleukin-3 (IL-3) and, at least in short-term assays, also interferon gamma (IFN gamma) induced proliferation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M7)-derived M-07e cells. The Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway was activated after stimulation with any of the three cytokines. Thus, the TPO-receptor (TPO-R) MPL was tyrosine phosphorylated after a short-term stimulation with TPO, followed by tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT 3 and STAT 5, but not of STAT 1. IL-3 and IFN gamma induced phosphorylation of STAT 5 or STAT 1, respectively, without affecting the other STATs. As STATs are thought to regulate proliferation by modulating expression of inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk), we analyzed p21 and p27 expression after stimulation with TPO or IL-3. In contrast to the constitutively low p21 expression, p27 mRNA levels were high in synchronized, cytokine-deprived cells in G0/1 phase. Stimulation with TPO or IL-3 induced a rapid decrease of p27 mRNA. The phosphorylation cycle of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) was inversely correlated with the level of p27 mRNA. Hyperphosphorylation of Rb was detectable 9 h after onset of stimulation, concomitantly with the decrease of p27 mRNA and shortly before transition of the cells into S phase. As phosphorylation of Rb is a key event for transition of cells into S phase, our observations support the notion of p27 being an important regulator during cytokine-induced proliferation. Whether the JAK/STAT pathway is directly involved in p27 expression or not, remains to be elucidated. The JAK inhibitor AG-490 blocked cytokine- induced STAT 5 phosphorylation and proliferation of M-07e cells in a dose-dependent manner. Although these data indicate a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in cytokine-induced proliferation, a direct influence on the p27 mRNA downregulation has to be confirmed. The second major effect of TPO, polypoidization, could not be observed in M-07e cells. Even long-term culture with TPO did not induce endomitosis in these cells. However, polyploidization could be brought about by the kinase inhibitor K-252a. After 3 days of exposure to this reagent, 17% of the originally mononucleated cells contained two to five nuclei. K-252a-induced polykaryon formation was not preceded by STAT 5 phosphorylation. Thus, K-252a did not mimic TPO stimulation at the early steps of the signaling chain. Taken together, our experiments confirm a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in cytokine-induced proliferation; TPO and IL-3 induce downregulation of the Cdk inhibitor p27, hyperphosphorylation of Rb and subsequently transition of the cells into S phase; the kinase inhibitor K-252a induces polyploidization of M-07e cells, but this effect is independent of STAT 5 phosphorylation.[1]


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