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Chemical Compound Review

Somsanit     sodium 4-hydroxybutanoate

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Disease relevance of Sodium oxybate


Psychiatry related information on Sodium oxybate

  • Newer compounds, such as modafinil (non-amphetamine wake-promoting compound for excessive daytime sleepiness) and sodium oxybate (short-acting sedative for fragmented nighttime sleep, cataplexy, excessive daytime sleepiness), are increasingly used [5].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nocturnal administration of sodium oxybate in patients with narcolepsy produces significant improvements in sleep architecture, which coincide with significant improvements in daytime functioning [6].
  • RESULTS: The nightly administration of sodium oxybate produced dose-related increases in slow-wave sleep and delta power, rapid eye movement sleep increased initially and then decreased in a dose-related manner, nocturnal awakenings decreased, and daytime sleep latency increased [6].
  • The effect of sodium oxybate was measured using nocturnal polysomnograms, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test, and a narcolepsy symptoms questionnaire [6].
  • Comment on "The abrupt cessation of therapeutically administered sodium oxybate (GHB) may cause withdrawal symptoms" [7].

High impact information on Sodium oxybate


Chemical compound and disease context of Sodium oxybate


Biological context of Sodium oxybate


Associations of Sodium oxybate with other chemical compounds

  • GHB levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in urine collected over 24 h from 16 adults administered single doses of 50 mg/kg GHB (Xyrem) alone and combined with 0.6 g/kg ethanol [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sodium oxybate


  1. Marked amelioration of alcohol-responsive posthypoxic myoclonus by gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (Xyrem). Frucht, S.J., Bordelon, Y., Houghton, W.H. Mov. Disord. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. The effects of sodium oxybate on clinical symptoms and sleep patterns in patients with fibromyalgia. Scharf, M.B., Baumann, M., Berkowitz, D.V. J. Rheumatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. A pilot tolerability and efficacy trial of sodium oxybate in ethanol-responsive movement disorders. Frucht, S.J., Bordelon, Y., Houghton, W.H., Reardan, D. Mov. Disord. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. From club drug to orphan drug: sodium oxybate (Xyrem) for the treatment of cataplexy. Fuller, D.E., Hornfeldt, C.S. Pharmacotherapy (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. The neurobiology of hypocretins (orexins), narcolepsy and related therapeutic interventions. Zeitzer, J.M., Nishino, S., Mignot, E. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. A pilot study on the effects of sodium oxybate on sleep architecture and daytime alertness in narcolepsy. Mamelak, M., Black, J., Montplaisir, J., Ristanovic, R. Sleep. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Comment on "The abrupt cessation of therapeutically administered sodium oxybate (GHB) may cause withdrawal symptoms". Zvosec, D.L., Smith, S.W. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. A randomized trial evaluating the effectiveness of sodium oxybate therapy on quality of life in narcolepsy. Weaver, T.E., Cuellar, N. Sleep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Sodium oxybate improves excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy. Black, J., Houghton, W.C. Sleep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Dose-dependent pharmacokinetics and hypnotic effects of sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate in the rat. Lettieri, J.T., Fung, H.L. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. The influence of gender and food on the pharmacokinetics of sodium oxybate oral solution in healthy subjects. Borgen, L.A., Okerholm, R., Morrison, D., Lai, A. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) carrier-mediated transport across the blood-brain barrier. Bhattacharya, I., Boje, K.M. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. EFNS guidelines on management of narcolepsy. Billiard, M., Bassetti, C., Dauvilliers, Y., Dolenc-Groselj, L., Lammers, G.J., Mayer, G., Pollmächer, T., Reading, P., Sonka, K. Eur. J. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Sodium oxybate for cataplexy. Lemon, M.D., Strain, J.D., Farver, D.K. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. GHB urine concentrations after single-dose administration in humans. Haller, C., Thai, D., Jacob, P., Dyer, J.E. Journal of analytical toxicology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. gamma-Hydroxybutyrate/Sodium Oxybate : Neurobiology, and Impact on Sleep and Wakefulness. Pardi, D., Black, J. CNS drugs (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Sodium oxybate for narcolepsy. Scharf, M.B. Expert review of neurotherapeutics. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Gamma-hydrobutyric acid (GHB) and its chemical modifications: a review of the GHBergic system. Waszkielewicz, A., Bojarski, J. Polish journal of pharmacology. (2004) [Pubmed]
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