The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Narcolepsy


Psychiatry related information on Narcolepsy

  • The finding of orexin/hypocretin deficiency in narcolepsy patients suggests that this hypothalamic neuropeptide plays a crucial role in regulating sleep/wakefulness states [6].
  • While normal regulation of wake/non-REM sleep transitions depends critically upon OX2R activation, the profound dysregulation of REM sleep control unique to the narcolepsy-cataplexy syndrome emerges from loss of signaling through both OX2R-dependent and OX2R-independent pathways [7].
  • A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of L-tyrosine was done in ten subjects with narcolepsy and cataplexy [8].
  • This hypothesis was tested by using a multiple sleep latency test to compare bipolar affective disorder with narcolepsy, a well-defined primary sleep disorder associated with known REM sleep dysfunction [9].
  • These findings suggest that the occurrence of these symptoms in subjects without classical narcolepsy-cataplexy is a function of factors other than a propensity for early onset of REM sleep and indicate a need to reevaluate diagnostic criteria for narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia [10].

High impact information on Narcolepsy


Chemical compound and disease context of Narcolepsy


Biological context of Narcolepsy

  • Recent studies using molecular genetics in mice and dogs, as well as histopathological analyses of human disease, have come to the same conclusion: the human sleep disorder narcolepsy is caused by failure of signaling mediated by orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides [19].
  • A single haplotype was shared by all affected individuals and informative crossovers indicated that the elusive gene that confers susceptibility to narcolepsy is likely to be located between markers D21S267 and ABCG1, in a 5.15 Mb region of 21q [20].
  • Twenty-five white men with rapid eye movements (REM) sleep behavior disorder, but without narcolepsy, underwent HLA class II antigen typing: 84% (N=21) were DQwl (DQB1*05,06) positive (28% [N=7] were DR2 positive); DQB1*0501 (N=9) and DQB1*0602 (N=7) were the most common phenotypes [21].
  • Exon skipping mutations of the Hypocretin/Orexin-receptor-2 (Hcrtr2) gene were identified as the cause of narcolepsy in Dobermans and Labradors [22].
  • We measured the concentrations of the three major monoamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin, their metabolites, and receptor binding sites in autopsied brain of three patients with narcolepsy [23].

Anatomical context of Narcolepsy


Gene context of Narcolepsy

  • A mutation in a case of early onset narcolepsy and a generalized absence of hypocretin peptides in human narcoleptic brains [13].
  • Hypocretin/orexin, sleep and narcolepsy [29].
  • Expression of the hypocretin/orexin receptor HCRTR2, which has been implicated in narcolepsy, correlated with sleep disturbance [30].
  • Therefore, it is conceivable that the TNF-alpha with 857T was associated with narcolepsy independently of the strong association of DRB1*1501 with the disorder [31].
  • A deletion in the second exon of an HLA-DRB1 allele found in a DR2-negative narcolepsy patient [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Narcolepsy


  1. Reduced number of hypocretin neurons in human narcolepsy. Thannickal, T.C., Moore, R.Y., Nienhuis, R., Ramanathan, L., Gulyani, S., Aldrich, M., Cornford, M., Siegel, J.M. Neuron (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Disordered growth hormone and prolactin secretion in primary disorders of sleep. Clark, R.W., Schmidt, H.S., Malarkey, W.B. Neurology (1979) [Pubmed]
  3. Selegiline in the treatment of narcolepsy. Hublin, C., Partinen, M., Heinonen, E.H., Puukka, P., Salmi, T. Neurology (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Sleep-related eating disorders: polysomnographic correlates of a heterogeneous syndrome distinct from daytime eating disorders. Schenck, C.H., Hurwitz, T.D., Bundlie, S.R., Mahowald, M.W. Sleep. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Narcolepsy caused by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Gledhill, R.F., Bartel, P.R., Yoshida, Y., Nishino, S., Scammell, T.E. Arch. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Input of orexin/hypocretin neurons revealed by a genetically encoded tracer in mice. Sakurai, T., Nagata, R., Yamanaka, A., Kawamura, H., Tsujino, N., Muraki, Y., Kageyama, H., Kunita, S., Takahashi, S., Goto, K., Koyama, Y., Shioda, S., Yanagisawa, M. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Distinct narcolepsy syndromes in Orexin receptor-2 and Orexin null mice: molecular genetic dissection of Non-REM and REM sleep regulatory processes. Willie, J.T., Chemelli, R.M., Sinton, C.M., Tokita, S., Williams, S.C., Kisanuki, Y.Y., Marcus, J.N., Lee, C., Elmquist, J.K., Kohlmeier, K.A., Leonard, C.S., Richardson, J.A., Hammer, R.E., Yanagisawa, M. Neuron (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Treatment of narcolepsy with L-tyrosine: double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Elwes, R.D., Crewes, H., Chesterman, L.P., Summers, B., Jenner, P., Binnie, C.D., Parkes, J.D. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Hypersomnia in bipolar depression: a comparison with narcolepsy using the multiple sleep latency test. Nofzinger, E.A., Thase, M.E., Reynolds, C.F., Himmelhoch, J.M., Mallinger, A., Houck, P., Kupfer, D.J. The American journal of psychiatry. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. The clinical spectrum of narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. Aldrich, M.S. Neurology (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. The sleep disorder canine narcolepsy is caused by a mutation in the hypocretin (orexin) receptor 2 gene. Lin, L., Faraco, J., Li, R., Kadotani, H., Rogers, W., Lin, X., Qiu, X., de Jong, P.J., Nishino, S., Mignot, E. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Letter: Narcolepsy: REM sleep suppression by L-dopa. Gilbert, J.C., Willer, J.C., Bernheim-Chaltelain, C., Ecoffet, M., Jaillon, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. A mutation in a case of early onset narcolepsy and a generalized absence of hypocretin peptides in human narcoleptic brains. Peyron, C., Faraco, J., Rogers, W., Ripley, B., Overeem, S., Charnay, Y., Nevsimalova, S., Aldrich, M., Reynolds, D., Albin, R., Li, R., Hungs, M., Pedrazzoli, M., Padigaru, M., Kucherlapati, M., Fan, J., Maki, R., Lammers, G.J., Bouras, C., Kucherlapati, R., Nishino, S., Mignot, E. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. The neurobiology of narcolepsy. Aldrich, M.S. Trends Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Acetylcholine and the regulation of REM sleep: basic mechanisms and clinical implications for affective illness and narcolepsy. Shiromani, P.J., Gillin, J.C., Henriksen, S.J. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Role of central alpha-1 adrenoceptors in canine narcolepsy. Mignot, E., Guilleminault, C., Bowersox, S., Rappaport, A., Dement, W.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Deprenyl in narcolepsy. Schachter, M., Price, P.A., Perkes, J.D. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Propranolol in the treatment of narcolepsy. Kales, A., Soldatos, C.R., Cadieux, R., Bixler, E.O., Tan, T.L., Scharf, M.B. Ann. Intern. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Sleep, feeding, and neuropeptides: roles of orexins and orexin receptors. Mieda, M., Yanagisawa, M. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. A narcolepsy susceptibility locus maps to a 5 Mb region of chromosome 21q. Dauvilliers, Y., Blouin, J.L., Neidhart, E., Carlander, B., Eliaou, J.F., Antonarakis, S.E., Billiard, M., Tafti, M. Ann. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. HLA class II genes associated with REM sleep behavior disorder. Schenck, C.H., Garcia-Rill, E., Segall, M., Noreen, H., Mahowald, M.W. Ann. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Identification and functional analysis of mutations in the hypocretin (orexin) genes of narcoleptic canines. Hungs, M., Fan, J., Lin, L., Lin, X., Maki, R.A., Mignot, E. Genome Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Brain neurotransmitter changes in human narcolepsy. Kish, S.J., Mamelak, M., Slimovitch, C., Dixon, L.M., Lewis, A., Shannak, K., DiStefano, L., Chang, L.J., Hornykiewicz, O. Neurology (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Glucose hypometabolism of hypothalamus and thalamus in narcolepsy. Joo, E.Y., Tae, W.S., Kim, J.H., Kim, B.T., Hong, S.B. Ann. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Treatment with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agents delays onset of canine genetic narcolepsy and reduces symptom severity. Boehmer, L.N., Wu, M.F., John, J., Siegel, J.M. Exp. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparison of the psychosocial effects of epilepsy and narcolepsy/cataplexy: a controlled study. Broughton, R.J., Guberman, A., Roberts, J. Epilepsia (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. DLA-DQB1 alleles and bone marrow transplantation experiments in narcoleptic dogs. Wagner, J.L., Storb, R., Storer, B., Mignot, E. Tissue Antigens (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Dopamine D2-receptors in human narcolepsy: a SPECT study with 123I-IBZM. Hublin, C., Launes, J., Nikkinen, P., Partinen, M. Acta neurologica Scandinavica. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Hypocretin/orexin, sleep and narcolepsy. Hungs, M., Mignot, E. Bioessays (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Correlation of psycho-neuroendocrine-immune (PNI) gene expression with symptoms of acute infectious mononucleosis. Vernon, S.D., Nicholson, A., Rajeevan, M., Dimulescu, I., Cameron, B., Whistler, T., Lloyd, A. Brain Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Significant association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene promoter with human narcolepsy. Hohjoh, H., Nakayama, T., Ohashi, J., Miyagawa, T., Tanaka, H., Akaza, T., Honda, Y., Juji, T., Tokunaga, K. Tissue Antigens (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. A deletion in the second exon of an HLA-DRB1 allele found in a DR2-negative narcolepsy patient. Roushdy, J., Santoso, S., Kalb, R., Meier-Ewert, K., Albert, E.D., Mueller-Eckhardt, G. Hum. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Increased serotonin receptor availability in human sleep: evidence from an [18F]MPPF PET study in narcolepsy. Derry, C., Benjamin, C., Bladin, P., le Bars, D., Tochon-Danguy, H., Berkovic, S.F., Zimmer, L., Costes, N., Mulligan, R., Reutens, D. Neuroimage (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Efficacy of gamma-hydroxybutyrate versus placebo in treating narcolepsy-cataplexy: double-blind subjective measures. Scrima, L., Hartman, P.G., Johnson, F.H., Hiller, F.C. Biol. Psychiatry (1989) [Pubmed]
  35. REM changes in narcolepsy with selegiline. Reinish, L.W., MacFarlane, J.G., Sandor, P., Shapiro, C.M. Sleep. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. The effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate on the sleep of narcolepsy patients: a double-blind study. Scrima, L., Hartman, P.G., Johnson, F.H., Thomas, E.E., Hiller, F.C. Sleep. (1990) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities