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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Attenace     2-benzhydrylsulfinylethanamide

Synonyms: Modalert, Modiodal, Provigil, Alertec, Modasomil, ...
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Disease relevance of C13302


Psychiatry related information on C13302


High impact information on C13302


Chemical compound and disease context of C13302


Biological context of C13302


Anatomical context of C13302


Associations of C13302 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of C13302

  • In vitro, modafinil was observed to produce a reversible inhibition of CYP2C19 in human liver microsomes [20].
  • The mean activities of microsomal CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4/5 from modafinil-treated hepatocytes were higher (up to 2-fold) than those in the solvent-treated controls but were less than those produced by reference inducers of these enzymes [32].
  • At high concentrations of modafinil (>/=100 microM), the mean activity of CYP2C9 was decreased (up to 60%) relative to that in the solvent controls [32].
  • In vitro, modafinil effects in DAT-human embryonic kidney (HEK), NET-HEK, and SERT-HEK cells were investigated alone or combined with the TA1 receptor [17].
  • In vitro, modafinil inhibited [(3)H]dopamine (IC(50) = 6.4 muM), [(3)H]norepinephrine (IC(50) = 35.6 muM), and [(3)H]serotonin (IC(50) > 500 muM) transport via the human DAT, NET, and SERT [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of C13302


  1. Modafinil-associated clozapine toxicity. Dequardo, J.R. The American journal of psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. A case of premature ventricular contractions with modafinil. Oskooilar, N. The American journal of psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Modafinil as adjunct therapy for daytime sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea. Pack, A.I., Black, J.E., Schwartz, J.R., Matheson, J.K. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Modafinil for excessive daytime sleepiness in myotonic dystrophy. Damian, M.S., Gerlach , A., Schmidt, F., Lehmann , E., Reichmann, H. Neurology (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Pro: modafinil has a role in management of sleep apnea. Black, J. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The neurobiology of hypocretins (orexins), narcolepsy and related therapeutic interventions. Zeitzer, J.M., Nishino, S., Mignot, E. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Potential brain neuronal targets for amphetamine-, methylphenidate-, and modafinil-induced wakefulness, evidenced by c-fos immunocytochemistry in the cat. Lin, J.S., Hou, Y., Jouvet, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Modafinil for social phobia and amphetamine dependence. Camacho, A., Stein, M.B. The American journal of psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Modafinil improves cognition and response inhibition in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Turner, D.C., Clark, L., Dowson, J., Robbins, T.W., Sahakian, B.J. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. A placebo-controlled evaluation of adjunctive modafinil in the treatment of bipolar depression. Frye, M.A., Grunze, H., Suppes, T., McElroy, S.L., Keck, P.E., Walden, J., Leverich, G.S., Altshuler, L.L., Nakelsky, S., Hwang, S., Mintz, J., Post, R.M. Am. J. Psychiatry (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Narcolepsy in orexin knockout mice: molecular genetics of sleep regulation. Chemelli, R.M., Willie, J.T., Sinton, C.M., Elmquist, J.K., Scammell, T., Lee, C., Richardson, J.A., Williams, S.C., Xiong, Y., Kisanuki, Y., Fitch, T.E., Nakazato, M., Hammer, R.E., Saper, C.B., Yanagisawa, M. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Pharmacological aspects of human and canine narcolepsy. Nishino, S., Mignot, E. Prog. Neurobiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. A systematic review of modafinil: potential clinical uses and mechanisms of action. Ballon, J.S., Feifel, D. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. The effects of caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil on humor appreciation during sleep deprivation. Killgore, W.D., McBride, S.A., Killgore, D.B., Balkin, T.J. Sleep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Sodium oxybate improves excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy. Black, J., Houghton, W.C. Sleep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. The stimulant effect of modafinil on wakefulness is not associated with an increase in anxiety in mice. A comparison with dexamphetamine. Simon, P., Panissaud, C., Costentin, J. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Modafinil occupies dopamine and norepinephrine transporters in vivo and modulates the transporters and trace amine activity in vitro. Madras, B.K., Xie, Z., Lin, Z., Jassen, A., Panas, H., Lynch, L., Johnson, R., Livni, E., Spencer, T.J., Bonab, A.A., Miller, G.M., Fischman, A.J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. The effect of modafinil on counter-regulatory and cognitive responses to hypoglycaemia. Smith, D., Pernet, A., Rosenthal, J.M., Bingham, E.M., Reid, H., Macdonald, I.A., Amiel, S.A. Diabetologia (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Does short-term treatment with modafinil affect blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea? Heitmann, J., Cassel, W., Grote, L., Bickel, U., Hartlaub, U., Penzel, T., Peter, J.H. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Clinical pharmacokinetic profile of modafinil. Robertson, P., Hellriegel, E.T. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Modafinil improves cognition and attentional set shifting in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Turner, D.C., Clark, L., Pomarol-Clotet, E., McKenna, P., Robbins, T.W., Sahakian, B.J. Neuropsychopharmacology (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of the wake-promoting agent modafinil on sleep-promoting neurons from the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus: an in vitro pharmacologic study. Gallopin, T., Luppi, P.H., Rambert, F.A., Frydman, A., Fort, P. Sleep. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of modafinil on the pharmacokinetics of ethinyl estradiol and triazolam in healthy volunteers. Robertson, P., Hellriegel, E.T., Arora, S., Nelson, M. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Modafinil augmentation of antidepressant treatment in depression. Menza, M.A., Kaufman, K.R., Castellanos, A. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Role of executive function in ADHD. Swanson, J.M. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. The vigilance promoting drug modafinil increases extracellular glutamate levels in the medial preoptic area and the posterior hypothalamus of the conscious rat: prevention by local GABAA receptor blockade. Ferraro, L., Antonelli, T., Tanganelli, S., O'Connor, W.T., Perez de la Mora, M., Mendez-Franco, J., Rambert, F.A., Fuxe, K. Neuropsychopharmacology (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Piperidine-based nocaine/modafinil hybrid ligands as highly potent monoamine transporter inhibitors: efficient drug discovery by rational lead hybridization. Zhou, J., He, R., Johnson, K.M., Ye, Y., Kozikowski, A.P. J. Med. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Distinctive effects of modafinil and d-amphetamine on the homeostatic and circadian modulation of the human waking EEG. Chapotot, F., Pigeau, R., Canini, F., Bourdon, L., Buguet, A. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Study of the addictive potential of modafinil in naive and cocaine-experienced rats. Deroche-Gamonet, V., Darnaudéry, M., Bruins-Slot, L., Piat, F., Le Moal, M., Piazza, P.V. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Differential enhancement of dialysate serotonin levels in distinct brain regions of the awake rat by modafinil: possible relevance for wakefulness and depression. Ferraro, L., Fuxe, K., Tanganelli, S., Tomasini, M.C., Rambert, F.A., Antonelli, T. J. Neurosci. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Smoked cocaine self-administration is decreased by modafinil. Hart, C.L., Haney, M., Vosburg, S.K., Rubin, E., Foltin, R.W. Neuropsychopharmacology (2008) [Pubmed]
  32. In vitro inhibition and induction of human hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes by modafinil. Robertson, P., DeCory, H.H., Madan, A., Parkinson, A. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of modafinil in the treatment of residual excessive daytime sleepiness in the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Kingshott, R.N., Vennelle, M., Coleman, E.L., Engleman, H.M., Mackay, T.W., Douglas, N.J. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Electroencephalographic effects of modafinil, an alpha-1-adrenergic psychostimulant, on the sleep of rhesus monkeys. Lagarde, D., Milhaud, C. Sleep. (1990) [Pubmed]
  35. Health-related quality of life effects of modafinil for treatment of narcolepsy. Beusterien, K.M., Rogers, A.E., Walsleben, J.A., Emsellem, H.A., Reblando, J.A., Wang, L., Goswami, M., Steinwald, B. Sleep. (1999) [Pubmed]
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