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Chemical Compound Review

GSSG     (2S)-2-amino-4-[[(1S)-2- [(2S)-2-[[(4S)-4...

Synonyms: Glutathiol, Oxigluthione, Glycopeptides, Oxiglutationa, oxiglutatione, ...
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Disease relevance of glutathione disulfide


High impact information on glutathione disulfide


Biological context of glutathione disulfide

  • C20 cells did not differ from the parent cell line with respect to cell cycle distribution, doubling time, GSH, GSH peroxidase, GSH reductase or GSH transferase levels [9].
  • The objective of this study was to determine the influence of insulin on oxidative stress, defined as a reduced intracellular GSH/GSH disulfide (GSSG) ratio and lipid peroxidation by plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) in patients with type 2 diabetes [2].
  • We confirmed that our patients underwent oxidative stress as shown by the significant difference in intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio in diabetic patients as compared to controls (13.56 +/- 3.84 vs 27.89 +/- 8.37, P < .0001) [2].

Anatomical context of glutathione disulfide


Associations of glutathione disulfide with other chemical compounds


Gene context of glutathione disulfide

  • The results of the present study indicate that resistance in LoVo/C7 cells cannot be attributed to alterations in P-gp, LRP or GSH/GSH-dependent enzyme levels [14].
  • In preterm babies significant correlations were found between G-6-PDH and CAT, GSH, GSH/GSSG ratio, and GSSG (r = -0.67, r = 0.71, r = -0.66, p < 0.01; r = 0.71, p < 0.05, respectively) [15].
  • We aimed to investigate serum GSH, GSH-dependent enzymes activities (GSH-Px and GST), XO, CAT, Cu-Zn SOD activity, and NO*, and MDA levels in patients with NSCLC and with SCLC and correlate with the cancer stage [16].


  1. Dietary selenium and age-related susceptibility of rat erythrocytes to oxidative damage. Chow, C.K., Chen, C.J. J. Nutr. (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Insulin decreases intracellular oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bravi, M.C., Armiento, A., Laurenti, O., Cassone-Faldetta, M., De Luca, O., Moretti, A., De Mattia, G. Metab. Clin. Exp. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Glutathione reductases from a variety of sources are inhibited by physiological levels of glutathione. Sexton, D.J., Mutus, B. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Heterogeneity in the radiation survival curves and biochemical properties of human lung cancer cell lines. Morstyn, G., Russo, A., Carney, D.N., Karawya, E., Wilson, S.H., Mitchell, J.B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Cascinu, S., Cordella, L., Del Ferro, E., Fronzoni, M., Catalano, G. J. Clin. Oncol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Diffusion of extracellular hydrogen peroxide into intracellular compartments of human neutrophils. Studies utilizing the inactivation of myeloperoxidase by hydrogen peroxide and azide. Ohno, Y., Gallin, J.I. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Aldehydic DNA lesions in calf thymus DNA and HeLa S3 cells produced by bacterial quinone metabolites of fluoranthene and pyrene. Zielinska-Park, J., Nakamura, J., Swenberg, J.A., Aitken, M.D. Carcinogenesis (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Blood glutathione concentrations in a large-scale human study. Richie, J.P., Skowronski, L., Abraham, P., Leutzinger, Y. Clin. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. A multidrug-resistant breast cancer cell line induced by weekly exposure to doxorubicin. Hahn, S.M., Russo, A., Cook, J.A., Mitchell, J.B. Int. J. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Cisplatin-induced changes in cytochrome P-450, lipid peroxidation and drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in rat kidney cortex. Bompart, G. Toxicol. Lett. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Inhibitory effects of glutathione level-raising agents and D-alpha-tocopherol on ornithine decarboxylase induction and mouse skin tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Perchellet, J.P., Owen, M.D., Posey, T.D., Orten, D.K., Schneider, B.A. Carcinogenesis (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Phosphine-induced oxidative damage in rats: role of glutathione. Hsu, C.H., Chi, B.C., Liu, M.Y., Li, J.H., Chen, C.J., Chen, R.Y. Toxicology (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of vitamin E supplementation on oxidative stress in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats: investigation of liver and plasma. Seven, A., Guzel, S., Seymen, O., Civelek, S., Bolayirli, M., Uncu, M., Burcak, G. Yonsei Med. J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of a clonal human colon adenocarcinoma line intrinsically resistant to doxorubicin. Dolfini, E., Dasdia, T., Arancia, G., Molinari, A., Calcabrini, A., Scheper, R.J., Flens, M.J., Gariboldi, M.B., Monti, E. Br. J. Cancer (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Glutathione recycling and antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocytes of term and preterm newborns at birth. Frosali, S., Di Simplicio, P., Perrone, S., Di Giuseppe, D., Longini, M., Tanganelli, D., Buonocore, G. Biol. Neonate (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, xanthine oxidase, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activities, total glutathione, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels in erythrocytes of patients with small cell and non-small cell lung cancer. Kaynar, H., Meral, M., Turhan, H., Keles, M., Celik, G., Akcay, F. Cancer Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
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