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Chemical Compound Review

Esketamine     (2S)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2- methylamino...

Synonyms: S-Ketamine, l-Ketamine, CHEMBL395091, SureCN5512024, CHEBI:60799, ...
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Psychiatry related information on l-Ketamine

  • Plasma concentrations, maximum regional brain concentrations, and specific regional binding in the brain after administration of 0, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg doses of (S)-ketamine were measured in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study in five volunteers and were related to induced effects such as analgesia, amnesia, and mood changes [1].
  • Current PTSD symptoms were substantially elevated in (S)-ketamine subjects, while there was no difference observed between opioids and racemic ketamines [2].
  • Effects of different subanaesthetic doses of (S)-ketamine on psychopathology and binocular depth inversion in man [3].
  • In spite of dose dependence and grave subjective and significant objective psychopathology, no significant impairment of binocular depth perception was found with (S)-ketamine [3].

High impact information on l-Ketamine


Biological context of l-Ketamine


Anatomical context of l-Ketamine

  • Psychotomimetic doses of (S)-ketamine increased cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRglu) markedly in the frontal cortex including the anterior cingulate, parietal and left sensorimotor cortex, and in the thalamus [6].

Associations of l-Ketamine with other chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of l-Ketamine


  1. Central nervous system effects of subdissociative doses of (S)-ketamine are related to plasma and brain concentrations measured with positron emission tomography in healthy volunteers. Hartvig, P., Valtysson, J., Lindner, K.J., Kristensen, J., Karlsten, R., Gustafsson, L.L., Persson, J., Svensson, J.O., Oye, I., Antoni, G. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of peritraumatic ketamine medication on early and sustained posttraumatic stress symptoms in moderately injured accident victims. Schönenberg, M., Reichwald, U., Domes, G., Badke, A., Hautzinger, M. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of different subanaesthetic doses of (S)-ketamine on psychopathology and binocular depth inversion in man. Passie, T., Karst, M., Borsutzky, M., Wiese, B., Emrich, H.M., Schneider, U. J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Psychological effects of (S)-ketamine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT): a double-blind, cross-over study in healthy volunteers. Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E., Heekeren, K., Neukirch, A., Stoll, M., Stock, C., Obradovic, M., Kovar, K.A. Pharmacopsychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Involvement of CYP2B6 in n-demethylation of ketamine in human liver microsomes. Yanagihara, Y., Kariya, S., Ohtani, M., Uchino, K., Aoyama, T., Yamamura, Y., Iga, T. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential psychopathology and patterns of cerebral glucose utilisation produced by (S)- and (R)-ketamine in healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET). Vollenweider, F.X., Leenders, K.L., Oye, I., Hell, D., Angst, J. European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of different subanesthetic doses of (S)-ketamine on neuropsychology, psychopathology, and state of consciousness in man. Passie, T., Karst, M., Wiese, B., Emrich, H.M., Schneider, U. Neuropsychobiology (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel blockers memantine, MRZ 2/579 and other amino-alkyl-cyclohexanes antagonise 5-HT(3) receptor currents in cultured HEK-293 and N1E-115 cell systems in a non-competitive manner. Rammes, G., Rupprecht, R., Ferrari, U., Zieglgänsberger, W., Parsons, C.G. Neurosci. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Low-dose anesthesia for corneal transplantation in mice. Zhang, E.P., Hoffmann, F. Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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