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MeSH Review

Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic

 Schultz,  McCaffery,  Melendrez,  True,  Yehuda,  Cooper-Kazaz,  Bruce,  Ekhator,  Cutchen, James Schmeidler,  Baker, Philip D. Harvey,  Lewine, A. Kavelaars,  Strawn,  DeCola,  Johnston,  Horn,  Kelsoe,  Germain,  Halfon,  Sanacora, Rachel Yehuda,  Brady,  Warner, Julia A. Golier, H. G. M. Westenberg,  Sandoval,  Owens,  Goldberg, James Schmeidler,  Nemeroff,  Macciardi,  Asnis,  Emmons, Maryann Lenoci,  Kasckow, A. Bikker,  Kimbrell,  Marler, E. Vermetten,  Tandberg, Thomas C. Neylan,  Edgar,  Kaufman,  Ekhator, Robert A. Grossman,  Rapaport, Dean G. Kilpatrick, Karestan C. Koenen, Kenneth J. Ruggiero, Ron Acierno, Sandro Galea, Heidi S. Resnick, John Roitzsch, John Boyle, Joel Gelernter,  Raimo,  Koss,  Geracioti, Johannes B. Reitsma,  Eisen, Rachel Yehuda,  McBride,  Farfel, Rachel Yehuda,  Shalev, Juliana Legge,  Koenen,  Price, Giel-Jan de Vries, Clare Henn-Haase,  Sikes, Robert W. Hierholzer, Martin H. Teicher,  West,  Goltser,  Niaura, Linda M. Bierer,  Young, Jonathan R. Seckl,  Golier,  Hill,  Fanselow,  Tsuang,  Griffin,  Schnierow,  Freeman,  Rau,  Schmidt,  Cheng, Kristin W. Samuelson,  Kinkead,  Geracioti, Adam Morris,  Davis,  Goyette,  Miller, E. Meulman,  Stein,  Zisook, E. Geuze,  Baker,  Hollifield,  Baker, C.J. Heijnen, Steven E. Lindley,  Segman, Miranda Olff,  Davidson,  Prince,  Guggenheim, Monte Buchsbaum,  Thoma,  Breslau,  Yehuda,  Provencal, Berthold P. R. Gersons,  Roca,  Krakow, Marie-Louise Meewisse,  Smith-Vaniz,  Hitsman,  Pearlstein, Jerome A. Yesavage,  Breslau,  Carpenter,  Rounds-Kugler,  Yehuda, Charles R. Marmar,  Lauriello,  Keck,  Griffin, Lisa Tischler,  Rothbaum,  Resick,  Canive, Thomas J. Metzler, Frank B. Schoenfeld,  Lyons,  Schrader, Christian Otte,  Dobroborski, C.S. de Kloet,  Gillin,  
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Disease relevance of Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic


Psychiatry related information on Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic


High impact information on Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic


Chemical compound and disease context of Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic

  • Cortisol and catecholamines in posttraumatic stress disorder: an epidemiologic community study [15].
  • RESULTS: Combat veterans with PTSD suppressed cortisol to a greater extent than did combat veterans without PTSD and normal controls in response to both doses of dexamethasone [16].
  • CONCLUSION: These findings are consistent with our previous hypothesis of enhanced norepinephrine release in the brain with yohimbine in patients with PTSD [17].
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder and the incidence of nicotine, alcohol, and other drug disorders in persons who have experienced trauma [18].
  • These results only partially support previous positive reports of phenelzine treatment of PTSD [19].
  • The preferential effect of cortisol administration on working memory in PTSD may be related to the superimposition of PTSD and age, as cortisol had impairing effects on this task in a previously studied, younger cohort [20].
  • Offspring with parental PTSD displayed lower mean cortisol levels, reflected by the circadian mesor and reduced cortisol amplitude, compared with offspring without parental PTSD and children of nonexposed parents [21].
  • Low cortisol levels in PTSD are only found under certain conditions [22].
  • The self-reported acute effects of pesticides and of pyridostigmine bromide during deployment were associated with lower ACTH levels, controlling for BMI and PTSD [23].
  • DEX-induced increase in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated interleukin-10 was less pronounced in traumatized veterans with and without PTSD compared to healthy controls [24].

Biological context of Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic


Anatomical context of Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic


Gene context of Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic


Chemical compound and disease context of Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic

  • Guanfacine had no effect on PTSD symptoms, subjective sleep quality, or general mood disturbances [44].


  1. The effect of stress doses of hydrocortisone during septic shock on posttraumatic stress disorder in survivors. Schelling, G., Briegel, J., Roozendaal, B., Stoll, C., Rothenhäusler, H.B., Kapfhammer, H.P. Biol. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Hypersensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to naloxone in post-traumatic stress disorder. Hockings, G.I., Grice, J.E., Ward, W.K., Walters, M.M., Jensen, G.R., Jackson, R.V. Biol. Psychiatry (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Resting regional cerebral perfusion in recent posttraumatic stress disorder. Bonne, O., Gilboa, A., Louzoun, Y., Brandes, D., Yona, I., Lester, H., Barkai, G., Freedman, N., Chisin, R., Shalev, A.Y. Biol. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. The dexamethasone suppression test and thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test in posttraumatic stress disorder. Kosten, T.R., Wahby, V., Giller, E., Mason, J. Biol. Psychiatry (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Misdiagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder following severe traumatic brain injury. Sumpter, R.E., McMillan, T.M. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. The characteristics and needs of sheltered homeless and low-income housed mothers. Bassuk, E.L., Weinreb, L.F., Buckner, J.C., Browne, A., Salomon, A., Bassuk, S.S. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Psychiatric disorders and mental health service use among caregivers of advanced cancer patients. Vanderwerker, L.C., Laff, R.E., Kadan-Lottick, N.S., McColl, S., Prigerson, H.G. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Enhanced cortisol suppression following dexamethasone administration in domestic violence survivors. Griffin, M.G., Resick, P.A., Yehuda, R. The American journal of psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. A 50-year prospective study of the psychological sequelae of World War II combat. Lee, K.A., Vaillant, G.E., Torrey, W.C., Elder, G.H. The American journal of psychiatry. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder in survivors of the Brooklyn Bridge shooting. Trappler, B., Friedman, S. The American journal of psychiatry. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Acute stress facilitates long-lasting changes in cholinergic gene expression. Kaufer, D., Friedman, A., Seidman, S., Soreq, H. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Imagery rehearsal therapy for chronic nightmares in sexual assault survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Krakow, B., Hollifield, M., Johnston, L., Koss, M., Schrader, R., Warner, T.D., Tandberg, D., Lauriello, J., McBride, L., Cutchen, L., Cheng, D., Emmons, S., Germain, A., Melendrez, D., Sandoval, D., Prince, H. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Efficacy and safety of sertraline treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Brady, K., Pearlstein, T., Asnis, G.M., Baker, D., Rothbaum, B., Sikes, C.R., Farfel, G.M. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. A twin registry study of the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and nicotine dependence in men. Koenen, K.C., Hitsman, B., Lyons, M.J., Niaura, R., McCaffery, J., Goldberg, J., Eisen, S.A., True, W., Tsuang, M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Cortisol and catecholamines in posttraumatic stress disorder: an epidemiologic community study. Young, E.A., Breslau, N. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Dose-response changes in plasma cortisol and lymphocyte glucocorticoid receptors following dexamethasone administration in combat veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder. Yehuda, R., Boisoneau, D., Lowy, M.T., Giller, E.L. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Positron emission tomography measurement of cerebral metabolic correlates of yohimbine administration in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Bremner, J.D., Innis, R.B., Ng, C.K., Staib, L.H., Salomon, R.M., Bronen, R.A., Duncan, J., Southwick, S.M., Krystal, J.H., Rich, D., Zubal, G., Dey, H., Soufer, R., Charney, D.S. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Posttraumatic stress disorder and the incidence of nicotine, alcohol, and other drug disorders in persons who have experienced trauma. Breslau, N., Davis, G.C., Schultz, L.R. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Posttraumatic stress disorder in Israeli combat veterans. Effect of phenelzine treatment. Lerer, B., Bleich, A., Kotler, M., Garb, R., Hertzberg, M., Levin, B. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Enhanced effects of cortisol administration on episodic and working memory in aging veterans with PTSD. Yehuda, R., Harvey, P.D., Buchsbaum, M., Tischler, L., Schmeidler, J. Neuropsychopharmacology (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Parental posttraumatic stress disorder as a vulnerability factor for low cortisol trait in offspring of holocaust survivors. Yehuda, R., Teicher, M.H., Seckl, J.R., Grossman, R.A., Morris, A., Bierer, L.M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. Cortisol and post-traumatic stress disorder in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Meewisse, M.L., Reitsma, J.B., de Vries, G.J., Gersons, B.P., Olff, M. Br. J. Psychiatry (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Twenty-four hour plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone in Gulf War veterans: relationships to posttraumatic stress disorder and health symptoms. Golier, J.A., Schmeidler, J., Legge, J., Yehuda, R. Biol. Psychiatry (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. Leukocyte glucocorticoid receptor expression and immunoregulation in veterans with and without post-traumatic stress disorder. de Kloet, C.S., Vermetten, E., Bikker, A., Meulman, E., Geuze, E., Kavelaars, A., Westenberg, H.G., Heijnen, C.J. Mol. Psychiatry (2007) [Pubmed]
  25. Abnormal stimulus-response intensity functions in posttraumatic stress disorder: an electrophysiological investigation. Lewine, J.D., Thoma, R.J., Provencal, S.L., Edgar, C., Miller, G.A., Canive, J.M. The American journal of psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Cyclic AMP signal transduction in posttraumatic stress disorder. Lerer, B., Ebstein, R.P., Shestatsky, M., Shemesh, Z., Greenberg, D. The American journal of psychiatry. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol in Holocaust survivors with and without PTSD. Yehuda, R., Golier, J.A., Kaufman, S. The American journal of psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Association between the dopamine transporter gene and posttraumatic stress disorder. Segman, R.H., Cooper-Kazaz, R., Macciardi, F., Goltser, T., Halfon, Y., Dobroborski, T., Shalev, A.Y. Mol. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Basal sympathoadrenal function in posttraumatic distress disorder. McFall, M.E., Veith, R.C., Murburg, M.M. Biol. Psychiatry (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Elevation of serum free triiodothyronine, total triiodothyronine, thyroxine-binding globulin, and total thyroxine levels in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Mason, J., Southwick, S., Yehuda, R., Wang, S., Riney, S., Bremner, D., Johnson, D., Lubin, H., Blake, D., Zhou, G. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. CSF norepinephrine concentrations in posttraumatic stress disorder. Geracioti, T.D., Baker, D.G., Ekhator, N.N., West, S.A., Hill, K.K., Bruce, A.B., Schmidt, D., Rounds-Kugler, B., Yehuda, R., Keck, P.E., Kasckow, J.W. The American journal of psychiatry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Decreased hippocampal N-acetylaspartate in the absence of atrophy in posttraumatic stress disorder. Schuff, N., Neylan, T.C., Lenoci, M.A., Du, A.T., Weiss, D.S., Marmar, C.R., Weiner, M.W. Biol. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Predictors of cortisol and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol responses in the acute aftermath of rape. Yehuda, R., Resnick, H.S., Schmeidler, J., Yang, R.K., Pitman, R.K. Biol. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Behavioral and endocrine response to cholecystokinin tetrapeptide in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Kellner, M., Wiedemann, K., Yassouridis, A., Levengood, R., Guo, L.S., Holsboer, F., Yehuda, R. Biol. Psychiatry (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Elevated serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-6 receptor concentrations in posttraumatic stress disorder following accidental man-made traumatic events. Maes, M., Lin, A.H., Delmeire, L., Van Gastel, A., Kenis, G., De Jongh, R., Bosmans, E. Biol. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Neuropsychiatric associations of apolipoprotein E alleles in subjects with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Freeman, T., Roca, V., Guggenheim, F., Kimbrell, T., Griffin, W.S. The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors CRF1 and CRF2 exert both additive and opposing influences on defensive startle behavior. Risbrough, V.B., Hauger, R.L., Roberts, A.L., Vale, W.W., Geyer, M.A. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. The serotonin transporter genotype and social support and moderation of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in hurricane-exposed adults. Kilpatrick, D.G., Koenen, K.C., Ruggiero, K.J., Acierno, R., Galea, S., Resnick, H.S., Roitzsch, J., Boyle, J., Gelernter, J. Am. J. Psychiatry (2007) [Pubmed]
  39. Elevated CSF corticotropin-releasing factor concentrations in posttraumatic stress disorder. Bremner, J.D., Licinio, J., Darnell, A., Krystal, J.H., Owens, M.J., Southwick, S.M., Nemeroff, C.B., Charney, D.S. The American journal of psychiatry. (1997) [Pubmed]
  40. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid substance p concentrations in posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression. Geracioti, T.D., Carpenter, L.L., Owens, M.J., Baker, D.G., Ekhator, N.N., Horn, P.S., Strawn, J.R., Sanacora, G., Kinkead, B., Price, L.H., Nemeroff, C.B. The American journal of psychiatry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  41. Stress-induced enhancement of fear learning: an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Rau, V., DeCola, J.P., Fanselow, M.S. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (2005) [Pubmed]
  42. Pharmacologic treatment of acute and chronic stress following trauma: 2006. Davidson, J.R. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  43. An open-label, 12-week clinical and sleep EEG study of nefazodone in chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Gillin, J.C., Smith-Vaniz, A., Schnierow, B., Rapaport, M.H., Kelsoe, J., Raimo, E., Marler, M.R., Goyette, L.M., Stein, M.B., Zisook, S. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  44. No improvement of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms with guanfacine treatment. Neylan, T.C., Lenoci, M., Samuelson, K.W., Metzler, T.J., Henn-Haase, C., Hierholzer, R.W., Lindley, S.E., Otte, C., Schoenfeld, F.B., Yesavage, J.A., Marmar, C.R. Am. J. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
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