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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Depth Perception

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Disease relevance of Depth Perception


Psychiatry related information on Depth Perception

  • RESULTS: In children with infantile strabismus, the critical period for susceptibility of stereopsis begins at 2.4 months and peaks at 4.3 months [6].
  • Midline fusion, a recurrent theme when describing callosal function, was assessed using tasks which included depth perception with binocular and/or monocular cues, two-point discrimination thresholds and sound localization in the peri-central and lateral fields [7].
  • 3. Both drugs affected colour discrimination, and dimenhydrinate degraded night-vision, reaction-time, and stereopsis [8].
  • In spite of dose dependence and grave subjective and significant objective psychopathology, no significant impairment of binocular depth perception was found with (S)-ketamine [9].
  • CONCLUSION: Although the stereo viewing system promises improved depth perception and the TFT and image projection displays are supposed to improve hand-eye coordination, none of these systems provided better task performance than the standard viewing system in this pelvi-trainer experiment [10].

High impact information on Depth Perception

  • Binocular depth perception following REM deprivation or awake state visual deprivation [11].
  • A moving cast shadow of the object affects the perception of the object's trajectory in adults [Kersten, D., Mamassian, P., & Knill, D. C. (1997). Moving cast shadow induce apparent motion in depth. Perception, 26, 171-192] [12].
  • Monocular and binocular visual depth perception was tested in 33 patients with WBS [13].
  • We suggest that interocular feature matching can attenuate the potency of interocular suppression, but unlike in previous work (McKee, S. P., Bravo, M. J., Taylor, D. G., & Legge, G. E. (1994) Stereo matching precedes dichoptic masking. Vision Research, 34, 1047) we do not invoke a special role for depth perception [14].
  • On the other hand, the temporo-occipital junction (i.e. human MT (middle temporal area) / MST (medial superior temporal area) complex) was activated in dynamic stereopsis [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Depth Perception

  • Perception of Glass pattern structure with stereopsis [16].
  • Impaired growth in retinal layers leading to delay in maturation of electroretinogram and depth-perception in postnatal rats occur due to pyridoxine deficiency [17].
  • A significant impairment of binocular depth perception was found when nabilone was administered, but combined application with cannabidiol revealed somewhat reduced effects on binocular depth inversion [18].
  • Viewing fluorescein angiograms with stereopsis significantly assists interpretation [19].
  • Performance on tasks which required depth perception was significantly poorer when subjects wore prism glasses with 8 and 12 delta BI and BO, whereas 4 delta BI and BO did not significantly affect performance [20].

Biological context of Depth Perception


Anatomical context of Depth Perception

  • These findings suggest that in MS impairment of depth perception, which is encoded in the primary visual cortex (area 17) and visual association cortex (areas 18 and 19), may be improved by administration of AC pulsed EMFs of picotesla flux density [25].

Gene context of Depth Perception

  • The minimum and maximum disparities for stimulating static and dynamic stereopsis in strabismus were examined as a function of spatial separation of disparate stimuli [26].
  • Sequential stereopsis produced good performance throughout in terms of low disparity thresholds when head position was varied by rotations around three axes: vertical (azimuth condition); horizontal (elevation); and midline (tilt) [27].
  • Quantitative modeling of the result implied a weak role for magnocellular input, suggests that human stereopsis is more strongly influenced by parvocellular input through the LGN [28].
  • Stereoscopic depth perception is possible when the short wave sensitive (SWS or "Blue") cones are isolated using a yellow adapting field [29].
  • We describe a modified version of the Frisby Stereopsis Screening Test which enables a light to be flashed behind the stereo target when the child being tested makes an appropriate pointing or reaching response [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Depth Perception


  1. Stereopsis after congenital cataract. Tytla, M.E., Lewis, T.L., Maurer, D., Brent, H.P. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Length-tension curves of human eye muscles during succinylcholine-induced contraction. Simonsz, H.J., Kolling, G.H., van Dijk, B., Kaufmann, H. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Ophthalmological findings in children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Wikstrand, M.H., Strömland, K., Flodin, S., Bergh, C., Wennerholm, U.B., Hellström, A. Acta ophthalmologica Scandinavica. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Motion perception tested with reversing grating in Duane's syndrome. Suzuki, Y., Awaya, S., Uno, S. Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Stereopsis in patients with albinism: clinical correlates. Lee, K.A., King, R.A., Summers, C.G. Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. The critical period for susceptibility of human stereopsis. Fawcett, S.L., Wang, Y.Z., Birch, E.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Extent and limits of callosal plasticity: presence of disconnection symptoms in callosal agenesis. Lassonde, M., Sauerwein, H.C., Lepore, F. Neuropsychologia. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of aspirin and dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) on visual processes. Luria, S.M., Kinney, J.A., McKay, C.L., Paulson, H.M., Ryan, A.P. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1979) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of different subanaesthetic doses of (S)-ketamine on psychopathology and binocular depth inversion in man. Passie, T., Karst, M., Borsutzky, M., Wiese, B., Emrich, H.M., Schneider, U. J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Quantitative evaluation of three advanced laparoscopic viewing technologies: a stereo endoscope, an image projection display, and a TFT display. Wentink, M., Jakimowicz, J.J., Vos, L.M., Meijer, D.W., Wieringa, P.A. Surgical endoscopy. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Binocular depth perception following REM deprivation or awake state visual deprivation. Herman, J.H., Roffwarg, H.P., Rosenmann, C.J., Tauber, E.S. Psychophysiology. (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Perception of motion trajectory of object from the moving cast shadow in infants. Imura, T., Yamaguchi, M.K., Kanazawa, S., Shirai, N., Otsuka, Y., Tomonaga, M., Yagi, A. Vision Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Visual depth processing in Williams-Beuren syndrome. Van der Geest, J.N., Lagers-van Haselen, G.C., van Hagen, J.M., Brenner, E., Govaerts, L.C., de Coo, I.F., Frens, M.A. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Interocular suppression is gated by interocular feature matching. Meese, T.S., Hess, R.F. Vision Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Common neural processing regions for dynamic and static stereopsis in human parieto-occipital cortices. Iwami, T., Nishida, Y., Hayashi, O., Kimura, M., Sakai, M., Kani, K., Ito, R., Shiino, A., Suzuki, M. Neurosci. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Perception of Glass pattern structure with stereopsis. Earle, D.C. Perception. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Vitamins and brain development. Ramakrishna, T. Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Different effects of nabilone and cannabidiol on binocular depth inversion in Man. Leweke, F.M., Schneider, U., Radwan, M., Schmidt, E., Emrich, H.M. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Viewing fluorescein angiograms with stereopsis significantly assists interpretation. Wells, C.G. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Task performance with base-in and base-out prism. Sheedy, J.E., Bailey, I.L., Buri, M., Bass, E. American journal of optometry and physiological optics. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Distance stereopsis in orthophores, heterophores, and intermittent strabismics. Rutstein, R.P., Fuhr, P., Schaafsma, D. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Binocular-disparity-dependent upper-lower hemifield anisotropy and left-right hemifield isotropy as revealed by dynamic random-dot stereograms. Julesz, B., Breitmeyer, B., Kropfi, W. Perception. (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. A comparison of stereopsis with ANVIS and F4949 night vision goggles. Knight, K.K., Apsey, D.A., Jackson, W.G., Dennis, R.J. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of pseudoephedrine and triprolidine on visual performance. Luria, S.M., Paulson, H.M., Ryan, A.P., Schlichting, C.L. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Impairment of depth perception in multiple sclerosis is improved by treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields. Sandyk, R. Int. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Spatial characteristics of static and dynamic stereoacuity in strabismus. Schor, C., Bridgeman, B., Tyler, C.W. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Exploring sequential stereopsis for co-planarity tasks. Taroyan, N.A., Buckley, D., Porrill, J., Frisby, J.P. Vision Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Relative contributions of sustained and transient pathways to human stereoprocessing. Kontsevich, L.L., Tyler, C.W. Vision Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Limits of binocular fusion in the short wave sensitive ("blue") cones. Wilson, H.R., Blake, R., Pokorny, J. Vision Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. An improved training procedure as a precursor to testing young children with the Frisby Stereotest. Frisby, J.P., Davis, H., McMorrow, K. Eye (London, England) (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Visual capacity and Prader-Willi syndrome. Fox, R., Sinatra, R.B., Mooney, M.A., Feurer, I.D., Butler, M.G. Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Stereoacuity and fusional amplitude in foveal suppression. Pratt-Johnson, J.A., Barlow, J.M. Can. J. Ophthalmol. (1975) [Pubmed]
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