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Chemical Compound Review

Xylaxine     N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-5,6- dihydro-4H-1,3...

Synonyms: Narcoxyl, Xilazina, xylazine, Primazine, Rometar, ...
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Disease relevance of xylazine


Psychiatry related information on xylazine


High impact information on xylazine


Chemical compound and disease context of xylazine


Biological context of xylazine


Anatomical context of xylazine

  • Promoting effects of xylazine on development of thyroid tumors in rats initiated with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine and the mechanism of action [22].
  • Under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, we found that repetitive stimulation of subiculum or Schaffer collaterals facilitated entorhinal responses, such that a population spike appeared in layer III [23].
  • The present study suggests that xylazine-induced hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia are mediated by alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, possibly in beta-cells of pancreatic islets which inhibit the release of insulin [14].
  • We examined, in anaesthetized (ketamine/xylazine) rats, the properties of motoneurones with axons in the tibial nerve, from rats performing daily spontaneous running exercise for 12 weeks in exercise wheels ('runners') and from rats confined to plastic cages ('controls') [24].
  • Responses indicating reentrance in the dentate gyrus were not found under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, but were readily evoked under urethane anesthesia [23].

Associations of xylazine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of xylazine

  • To test this hypothesis, male rats (250-290 g) were anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine (which does not alter pulsatile GH secretion) and infused i.v. with a GHRH analog ([des-NH2Tyr1,D-Ala15]hGRF-(1-29)-NH2; 10 microg/h) or saline for 4 h [30].
  • We show that STAT3 is activated in the retina after exposure to subtoxic bright light, mechanical trauma, and systemic administration of the alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist xylazine, all of which have been shown previously to condition photoreceptors to resist light-induced degeneration [31].
  • Midazolam, a CYP3A probe for both rats and humans, was administered orally (2.7 mg), intravenously (0.57 mg), or via the portal vein (0.57 mg) to rats 4 h after anesthesia with ketamine/xylazine and surgery for placement of indwelling vascular and duodenal catheters and 3 days after surgery (chronic) [32].
  • There was no significant increase in serum GH concentration in either group of Pomeranians after xylazine or human GH-releasing factor (GHRF) administration, whereas control dogs had significant (P less than or equal to 0.05) increase in serum GH concentration after administration of either agent [33].
  • AIMS: The aims of the present study were to characterise the renal effects of the alpha2-adrenergic agonist, xylazine, in the rat and to test the role of changes in glomerular filtration rate, glucosuria, and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in its mechanism of action [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of xylazine


  1. Hyperglycemia and the vascular effects of cerebral ischemia. Kawai, N., Keep, R.F., Betz, A.L. Stroke (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of anesthetic agents and fasting duration on 18F-FDG biodistribution and insulin levels in tumor-bearing mice. Lee, K.H., Ko, B.H., Paik, J.Y., Jung, K.H., Choe, Y.S., Choi, Y., Kim, B.T. J. Nucl. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Xylazine emesis, yohimbine and motion sickness susceptibility in the cat. Lucot, J.B., Crampton, G.H. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of clonidine and xylazine on body temperature in the rat. Livingston, A., Low, J., Morris, B. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. The formalin test in the mouse: a parametric analysis of scoring properties. Saddi, G., Abbott, F.V. Pain (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Discriminative stimulus properties of xylazine in rat: discriminability and effects of putative alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists. Colpaert, F.C., Janssen, P.A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Xylazine in human tissue and fluids in a case of fatal drug abuse. Poklis, A., Mackell, M.A., Case, M.E. Journal of analytical toxicology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of butorphanol, flunixin, levorphanol, morphine, and xylazine in ponies. Kalpravidh, M., Lumb, W.V., Wright, M., Heath, R.B. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Stress-induced analgesia in pigs. Dantzer, R., Bluthé, R.M., Tazi, A. Ann. Rech. Vet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Trial-to-trial variability and state-dependent modulation of auditory-evoked responses in cortex. Kisley, M.A., Gerstein, G.L. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Alpha 2-adrenergic agonists induce basic fibroblast growth factor expression in photoreceptors in vivo and ameliorate light damage. Wen, R., Cheng, T., Li, Y., Cao, W., Steinberg, R.H. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Lipid rafts/caveolae are essential for insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation induction. Huo, H., Guo, X., Hong, S., Jiang, M., Liu, X., Liao, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Impact of animal handling on the results of 18F-FDG PET studies in mice. Fueger, B.J., Czernin, J., Hildebrandt, I., Tran, C., Halpern, B.S., Stout, D., Phelps, M.E., Weber, W.A. J. Nucl. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Xylazine-induced hyperglycemia in cattle: a possible involvement of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors regulating insulin release. Hsu, W.H., Hummel, S.K. Endocrinology (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Comparison of the effects of detomidine and xylazine on some alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated responses in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Virtanen, R., MacDonald, E. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Arterial-end tidal PCO2 equilibration in the cat during acute hypercapnia. Fordyce, W.E., Kanter, R.K. Respiration physiology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Ischemia induces significant changes in purine nucleoside concentration in the retina-choroid in rats. Roth, S., Rosenbaum, P.S., Osinski, J., Park, S.S., Toledano, A.Y., Li, B., Moshfeghi, A.A. Exp. Eye Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Aortic wall properties in normotensive and hypertensive rats of various ages in vivo. van Gorp, A.W., van Ingen Schenau, D.S., Hoeks, A.P., Struijker Boudier, H.A., Reneman, R.S., De Mey, J.G. Hypertension (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Rapid inibition of basal and glucose-stimulated insulin release by xylazine. Goldfine, I.D., Arieff, A.I. Endocrinology (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. Alpha2-adrenergic agonists selectively activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases in Müller cells in vivo. Peng, M., Li, Y., Luo, Z., Liu, C., Laties, A.M., Wen, R. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Undifferentiated effects of calcium antagonists on pressor responses to selective alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists in anesthetized, spinal dogs. Morita, T., Maniwa, T., Satoh, K., Taira, N. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Promoting effects of xylazine on development of thyroid tumors in rats initiated with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine and the mechanism of action. Yasuhara, K., Koujitani, T., Takegawa, K., Nasu, M., Onodera, H., Takagi, H., Hirose, M., Mitsumori, K. Carcinogenesis (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Two reentrant pathways in the hippocampal-entorhinal system. Kloosterman, F., van Haeften, T., Lopes da Silva, F.H. Hippocampus. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of daily spontaneous running on the electrophysiological properties of hindlimb motoneurones in rats. Beaumont, E., Gardiner, P. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Human copper-zinc superoxide dismutase transgenic mice are highly resistant to reperfusion injury after focal cerebral ischemia. Yang, G., Chan, P.H., Chen, J., Carlson, E., Chen, S.F., Weinstein, P., Epstein, C.J., Kamii, H. Stroke (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of general anesthetics on IOP in rats with experimental aqueous outflow obstruction. Jia, L., Cepurna, W.O., Johnson, E.C., Morrison, J.C. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Inhibition of glucose-induced insulin release by xylazine. Abdel el Motal, S.M., Sharp, G.W. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Breakdown of the blood--aqueous barrier in the rabbit eye by infrared radiation. Kurnik, R.T., Burde, R.M., Becker, B. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Insulin-related changes in the subcellular distribution of insulin receptors in intact rat liver: effects of acute hypoinsulinemia induced by diazoxide, somatostatin, and xylazine. López, S., Desbuquois, B. Endocrinology (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) and the GH secretagogue (GHS), L692,585, differentially modulate rat pituitary GHS receptor and GHRH receptor messenger ribonucleic acid levels. Kineman, R.D., Kamegai, J., Frohman, L.A. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Ciliary neurotrophic factor and stress stimuli activate the Jak-STAT pathway in retinal neurons and glia. Peterson, W.M., Wang, Q., Tzekova, R., Wiegand, S.J. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. The effect of anesthesia and surgery on CYP3A activity in rats. Uhing, M.R., Beno, D.W., Jiyamapa-Serna, V.A., Chen, Y., Galinsky, R.E., Hall, S.D., Kimura, R.E. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Hormonal abnormalities in Pomeranians with normal coat and in Pomeranians with growth hormone-responsive dermatosis. Schmeitzel, L.P., Lothrop, C.D. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Renal actions of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist, xylazine, in the anaesthetised rat. Miller, J.H., McCoy, K.D., Coleman, A.S. New Zealand veterinary journal. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Effect of anesthetic or analgesic drugs on lipogenic and lipolytic adipose tissue activities. Mersmann, H.J. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  36. Effect of neuropeptide Y on alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated cardiovascular responses in the pithed rat. Vila, E., Macrae, I.M. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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