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Chemical Compound Review

Esclama     4-[2-(5-nitroimidazol-1- yl)ethyl]morpholine

Synonyms: Acterol, Naxofem, Naxogin, Nimorazol, Nulogyl, ...
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Disease relevance of K-1900

  • Accordingly, we have combined nimorazole, the only hypoxic radiosensitizer shown to significantly improve local control in head and neck cancer, with continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy (CHART) [1].
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-two patients with locally advanced (stage IV) squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were treated with escalating doses of nimorazole given concomitantly with CHART (three fractions of 1.5 Gy per day, spaced 5 1/2 hours apart, on 12 consecutive days) [1].
  • Nimorazole toxicity was somewhat greater than with once daily administration in previous studies [2].
  • 417 patients suffering from intestinal amoebiasis were randomly allocated to 6 different treatment groups in a controlled study in 3 District Hospitals in Kenya. The patients received either aminosidine (A), etophamide (E), nimorazole (N), or the combinations NA, NE, EA [3].
  • Cure rates for bacterial vaginosis by nimorazole were 70.0% (21/30), 83.3% (25/30), and 90.0% (27/30) in Group I, II, and III, respectively [4].

High impact information on K-1900


Chemical compound and disease context of K-1900


Biological context of K-1900


Anatomical context of K-1900

  • CONCLUSION: Nimorazole significantly improves the effect of radiotherapeutic management of supraglottic and pharynx tumors and can be given without major side-effects [9].

Associations of K-1900 with other chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of K-1900


  1. Pilot study of nimorazole as a hypoxic-cell sensitizer with the "chart" regimen in head and neck cancer. Cottrill, C.P., Bishop, K., Walton, M.I., Henk, J.M. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Treatment of head and neck cancer with CHART and nimorazole: phase II study. Henk, J.M., Bishop, K., Shepherd, S.F. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Comparative study of aminosidine, etophamide and nimorazole, alone or in combination, in the treatment of intestinal amoebiasis in Kenya. Pamba, H.O., Estambale, B.B., Chunge, C.N., Donno, L. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. The comparison of the efficacy among three different nimorazole regimens in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Chandeying, V., Sutthijumroon, S., Tungphaisal, S. Asia-Oceania journal of obstetrics and gynaecology / AOFOG. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of the hypoxic cell sensitizer isometronidazole on local control of two human squamous cell carcinomas after fractionated irradiation. Schreiber, A., Krause, M., Zips, D., Dörfler, A., Richter, K., Vettermann, S., Petersen, C., Beuthien-Baumann, B., Thümmler, D., Baumann, M. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. A metronidazole-resistant strain of Trichomonas vaginalis and its sensitivity to Go 10213. Ray, D.K., Tendulkar, J.S., Shrivastava, V.B., Datta, A.K., Nagarajan, K. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Studies of the pharmacokinetic properties of nimorazole. Overgaard, J., Overgaard, M., Timothy, A.R. Br. J. Cancer (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Trichomonal vaginitis. A 24-hr regimen of nimorazole compared with a 7-day regimen of metronidazole. Wigfield, A.S. The British journal of venereal diseases. (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. A randomized double-blind phase III study of nimorazole as a hypoxic radiosensitizer of primary radiotherapy in supraglottic larynx and pharynx carcinoma. Results of the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Study (DAHANCA) Protocol 5-85. Overgaard, J., Hansen, H.S., Overgaard, M., Bastholt, L., Berthelsen, A., Specht, L., Lindeløv, B., Jørgensen, K. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Giardiasis in childhood and its effects on the small intestine. Jové, S., Fagundes-Neto, U., Wehba, J., Machado, N.L., Patrício, F.R. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Analysis of the basic 5-nitroimidazole nimorazole in blood by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and its application to pharmacokinetic studies in individual mice. Workman, P. J. Chromatogr. (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. The effect of extracellular pH on radiosensitization by misonidazole and acidic or basic analogues. Watts, M.E., Jones, N.R. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. Relat. Stud. Phys. Chem. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Reevaluation of the radiosensitizing effects of sanazole and nimorazole in vitro and in vivo. Sugie, C., Shibamoto, Y., Ito, M., Ogino, H., Suzuki, H., Uto, Y., Nagasawa, H., Hori, H. J. Radiat. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
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