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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Vaginosis, Bacterial

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  • METHODS: To determine whether treating women in a general obstetrical population who have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (as diagnosed on the basis of vaginal Gram's staining and pH) prevents preterm delivery, we randomly assigned 1953 women who were 16 to less than 24 weeks pregnant to receive two 2-g doses of metronidazole or placebo [7].
  • Of the 358 women who did not have bacterial vaginosis when initially examined, 22 percent of those assigned to metronidazole and erythromycin and 25 percent of those assigned to placebo delivered prematurely (P = 0.55) [8].
  • We conclude that certain anaerobes act with G. vaginalis as causes of nonspecific vaginitis, and that a high ratio of succinate to lactate in vaginal fluid is a useful indicator in the diagnosis of this condition [1].
  • Effect of early oral clindamycin on late miscarriage and preterm delivery in asymptomatic women with abnormal vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis: a randomised controlled trial [9].
  • Induction of tumor necrosis factor- alpha secretion and toll-like receptor 2 and 4 mRNA expression by genital mucosal fluids from women with bacterial vaginosis [10].

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Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Vaginosis, Bacterial


  1. Anaerobic bacteria in nonspecific vaginitis. Spiegel, C.A., Amsel, R., Eschenbach, D., Schoenknecht, F., Holmes, K.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. Elmer, G.W., Surawicz, C.M., McFarland, L.V. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Increased interleukin-10 in the the endocervical secretions of women with non-ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases: a mechanism for enhanced HIV-1 transmission? Cohen, C.R., Plummer, F.A., Mugo, N., Maclean, I., Shen, C., Bukusi, E.A., Irungu, E., Sinei, S., Bwayo, J., Brunham, R.C. AIDS (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. A randomized, community trial of intensive sexually transmitted disease control for AIDS prevention, Rakai, Uganda. Wawer, M.J., Gray, R.H., Sewankambo, N.K., Serwadda, D., Paxton, L., Berkley, S., McNairn, D., Wabwire-Mangen, F., Li, C., Nalugoda, F., Kiwanuka, N., Lutalo, T., Brookmeyer, R., Kelly, R., Quinn, T.C. AIDS (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Two novel vaginal microbicides (polystyrene sulfonate and cellulose sulfate) inhibit Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobes commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis. Simoes, J.A., Citron, D.M., Aroutcheva, A., Anderson, R.A., Chany, C.J., Waller, D.P., Faro, S., Zaneveld, L.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Vaginal fetal fibronectin measurements from 8 to 22 weeks' gestation and subsequent spontaneous preterm birth. Goldenberg, R.L., Klebanoff, M., Carey, J.C., Macpherson, C., Leveno, K.J., Moawad, A.H., Sibai, B., Heine, R.P., Ernest, J.M., Dombrowski, M.P., Miodovnik, M., Wapner, R.J., Iams, J.D., Langer, O., O'sullivan, M.J., Roberts, J.M. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Metronidazole to prevent preterm delivery in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Network of Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units. Carey, J.C., Klebanoff, M.A., Hauth, J.C., Hillier, S.L., Thom, E.A., Ernest, J.M., Heine, R.P., Nugent, R.P., Fischer, M.L., Leveno, K.J., Wapner, R., Varner, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Reduced incidence of preterm delivery with metronidazole and erythromycin in women with bacterial vaginosis. Hauth, J.C., Goldenberg, R.L., Andrews, W.W., DuBard, M.B., Copper, R.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of early oral clindamycin on late miscarriage and preterm delivery in asymptomatic women with abnormal vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis: a randomised controlled trial. Ugwumadu, A., Manyonda, I., Reid, F., Hay, P. Lancet (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Induction of tumor necrosis factor- alpha secretion and toll-like receptor 2 and 4 mRNA expression by genital mucosal fluids from women with bacterial vaginosis. Zariffard, M.R., Novak, R.M., Lurain, N., Sha, B.E., Graham, P., Spear, G.T. J. Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Secnidazole. A review of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use in the management of protozoal infections and bacterial vaginosis. Gillis, J.C., Wiseman, L.R. Drugs (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Trimethylamine N-oxidation in Turkish women with bacterial vaginosis. Sardas, S., Akyol, D., Green, R.L., Mellon, T., Gökmen, O., Cholerton, S. Pharmacogenetics (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Susceptibility of Mobiluncus species to 23 antimicrobial agents and 15 other compounds. Spiegel, C.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Role of cephalosporins in gonorrhoea and other sexually transmitted diseases. Phillips, I. Drugs (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. The potential effect on Neisseria gonorrhoeae of the use of clindamycin vaginal cream in the empirical treatment of vaginal discharge. Adu-Sarkodie, Y.A., Brook, M.G., Clark, S., Bendall, R., Kell, P.D., Atia, W.A., Kelsey, M.C. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Time course of the regression of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy with and without treatment. Klebanoff, M.A., Hauth, J.C., MacPherson, C.A., Carey, J.C., Heine, R.P., Wapner, R.J., Iams, J.D., Moawad, A., Miodovnik, M., Sibai, B.M., vanDorsten, J.P., Dombrowski, M.P. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease after first-trimester legal abortion in women with bacterial vaginosis after treatment with metronidazole: a double-blind, randomized study. Larsson, P.G., Platz-Christensen, J.J., Thejls, H., Forsum, U., Påhlson, C. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. A polymorphism in the promoter region of TNF and bacterial vaginosis: preliminary evidence of gene-environment interaction in the etiology of spontaneous preterm birth. Macones, G.A., Parry, S., Elkousy, M., Clothier, B., Ural, S.H., Strauss, J.F. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Comparative study on vaginal or oral treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Mikamo, H., Kawazoe, K., Izumi, K., Watanabe, K., Ueno, K., Tamaya, T. Chemotherapy. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Interrelationships of interleukin-8 with interleukin-1beta and neutrophils in vaginal fluid of healthy and bacterial vaginosis positive women. Cauci, S., Guaschino, S., De Aloysio, D., Driussi, S., De Santo, D., Penacchioni, P., Quadrifoglio, F. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Antibiotic prescribing in a family medicine residency program. Robinson, J.D., Curry, R.W., Dallman, J.J., Chodosh, L.I., Adicks, J.D., Medley, E.S. The Journal of family practice. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Prematurity in multiple gestations: identification of patients who are at low risk. McMahon, K.S., Neerhof, M.G., Haney, E.I., Thomas, H.A., Silver, R.K., Peaceman, A.M. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Vaginal indicators of amniotic fluid infection in preterm labor. Hitti, J., Hillier, S.L., Agnew, K.J., Krohn, M.A., Reisner, D.P., Eschenbach, D.A. Obstetrics and gynecology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Does bacterial vaginosis alter the sensitivity of screening tests for Chlamydia trachomatis? An analysis of patient characteristics. Hussey, J., Edirisinghe, D.N., Pattman, R.S., Sankar, K.N., Wipat, W., Kearns, A., Turner, A.J. International journal of STD & AIDS. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Interleukin-1alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in cervico/vaginal secretion for screening of preterm birth in twin gestation. Wennerholm, U.B., Holm, B., Mattsby-Baltzer, I., Nielsen, T., Platz-Christensen, J.J., Sundell, G., Hagberg, H. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, fetal fibronectin, and endotoxin in the lower genital tract of pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis. Mattsby-Baltzer, I., Platz-Christensen, J.J., Hosseini, N., Rosén, P. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Sexually transmitted diseases in Swedish women with experience of casual sex with men of foreign nationalities within Sweden. Arvidson, M., Hellberg, D., Mårdh, P.A. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Differences in inflammatory cytokine and Toll-like receptor genes and bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. Goepfert, A.R., Varner, M., Ward, K., Macpherson, C., Klebanoff, M., Goldenberg, R.L., Mercer, B., Meis, P., Iams, J., Moawad, A., Carey, J.C., Leveno, K., Wapner, R., Caritis, S.N., Miodovnik, M., Sorokin, Y., O'Sullivan, M.J., Van Dorsten, J.P., Langer, O. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Comparison of different metronidazole therapeutic regimens for bacterial vaginosis. A meta-analysis. Lugo-Miro, V.I., Green, M., Mazur, L. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Gardnerella vaginalis in the male upper genital tract: a possible source of reinfection of the female partner. Elsner, P., Hartmann, A.A. Sexually transmitted diseases. (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. New approaches for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Sweet, R.L. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Spontaneous resolution of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy. Sheffield, J.S., Andrews, W.W., Klebanoff, M.A., Macpherson, C., Carey, J.C., Ernest, J.M., Wapner, R.J., Trout, W., Moawad, A., Miodovnik, M., Sibai, B., Varner, M.W., Caritis, S.N., Dombrowski, M., Langer, O., O'Sullivan, M.J. Obstetrics and gynecology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Proline aminopeptidase activity as a rapid diagnostic test to confirm bacterial vaginosis. Thomason, J.L., Gelbart, S.M., Wilcoski, L.M., Peterson, A.K., Jilly, B.J., Hamilton, P.R. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1988) [Pubmed]
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