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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Vaginitis


Psychiatry related information on Vaginitis


High impact information on Vaginitis

  • Letter: Single-dose metronidazole for trichomonal vaginitis: a follow-up [7].
  • Each treatment was well tolerated; vaginitis was the most frequently observed side effect (4% trovafloxacin, 7% ofloxacin) [8].
  • The most common adverse events reported by the patients who received fleroxacin were nausea (5%), headache (3%), and vaginitis (3%) [9].
  • The conditional probability of the several possible diagnoses was calculated, given various combinations of clinical data; a diagnosis of vaginitis was twice as likely as a diagnosis of UTI in a patient with dysuria [10].
  • Fut2-LacZ-null mice, which are a model of the human ABO and Lewis nonsecretor group, display increased susceptibility to experimental yeast vaginitis, indicating a role for alpha(1,2)fucosylated cervical glycans in mucosal defense [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Vaginitis


Biological context of Vaginitis


Anatomical context of Vaginitis

  • Side effects, including patients started on antibiotics but whose cultures did not confirm urinary tract infections, were diarrhea in 7 (16%) and rash in 1 (2%) of 44 A-C patients, compared with diarrhea in 1 (2%) and yeast vaginitis in 3 (6%) of 48 cefaclor patients [22].
  • CONCLUSION: Estriol, which has little effect on the endometrium, has the potential to be highly useful for the treatment of atrophic vaginitis [23].
  • Exfoliated vaginal epithelial cells with attached bacteria, termed 'clue cells', which were procured from a patient with non-specific vaginitis, were stained with ruthenium red and examined by transmission electron microscopy [24].
  • These results indicate that treatment with povidone-iodine vaginal pessaries is effective in the treatment of different forms of vaginitis and their daily use in euthyroid, non-pregnant women is safe and has no effect on thyroid function [25].

Gene context of Vaginitis

  • Interleukin-10 and TNF were not more prevalent in vaginitis patients or controls with a current candidal infection or BV than in uninfected subjects [26].
  • Among the 67 women examined, proteinase was detected only in 22 harboring C. albicans (range, 42-233 ng/ml of vaginal fluid), at concentrations significantly higher in the 14 vaginitis patients than in the 8 asymptomatic fungal carriers [17].
  • Animals receiving antimannoprotein (anti-MP) and anti-aspartyl proteinase (Sap) Ab-containing vaginal fluids from rats clearing a primary C. albicans infection showed a highly significant level of protection against vaginitis compared to animals given Ab-free vaginal fluid from noninfected rats [27].
  • Resistance of T-cell receptor delta-chain-deficient mice to experimental Candida albicans vaginitis [28].
  • In the same model, pepstatin A, a strong Sap inhibitor, exerted a strong curative effect on experimental vaginitis [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Vaginitis


  1. A metronidazole metabolite in human urine and its risk. Kock, R.L., Beaulieu, B.B., Chrystal, E.J., Goldman, P. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Single dose versus seven day metronidazole in Gardnerella vaginalis associated non-specific vaginitis. Alawattegama, A.B., Jones, B.M., Kinghorn, G.R., Geary, I., Duerden, B.L. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Metronidazole for Corynebacterium vaginale vaginitis. Balsdon, M.J., Maskell, R. Lancet (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Efficacy of ketoconazole v nystatin in prevention of fungal infections in neutropenic patients. Jones, P.G., Kauffman, C.A., McAuliffe, L.S., Liepman, M.K., Bergman, A.G. Arch. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Ineffectiveness of erythromycin for treatment of Haemophilus vaginalis-associated vaginitis: possible relationship to acidity of vaginal secretions. Durfee, M.A., Forsyth, P.S., Hale, J.A., Holmes, K.K. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Vaginal hormone therapy for urogenital and menopausal symptoms. Ballagh, S.A. Seminars in reproductive medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Letter: Single-dose metronidazole for trichomonal vaginitis: a follow-up. Dykers, J.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  8. Randomized trial of trovafloxacin and ofloxacin for single-dose therapy of gonorrhea. Trovafloxacin Gonorrhea Study Group. Jones, R.B., Schwebke, J., Thorpe, E.M., Dalu, Z.A., Leone, P., Johnson, R.B. Am. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Multicenter trial of fleroxacin versus ceftriaxone in the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea. Smith, B.L., Mogabgab, W.J., Dalu, Z.A., Jones, R.B., Douglas, J.M., Handsfield, H.H., Hook, E.W., Viner, B.L., Shands, J.W., McCormack, W.M. Am. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Management strategies for urinary and vaginal infections. Komaroff, A.L., Pass, T.M., McCue, J.D., Cohen, A.B., Hendricks, T.M., Friedland, G. Arch. Intern. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Increased susceptibility of secretor factor gene Fut2-null mice to experimental vaginal candidiasis. Hurd, E.A., Domino, S.E. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of reproductive hormones on experimental vaginal candidiasis. Fidel, P.L., Cutright, J., Steele, C. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Placebo-controlled trial of itraconazole for treatment of acute vaginal candidiasis. Stein, G.E., Mummaw, N. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Efficacy of D0870 treatment of experimental Candida vaginitis. Fidel, P.L., Cutright, J.L., Sobel, J.D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Ketoconazole in the prevention of experimental candidal vaginitis. Sobel, J.D., Muller, G. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparison of itraconazole and ketoconazole in the treatment of experimental candidal vaginitis. Sobel, J.D., Muller, G. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Evidence for a role for secreted aspartate proteinase of Candida albicans in vulvovaginal candidiasis. De Bernardis, F., Agatensi, L., Ross, I.K., Emerson, G.W., Lorenzini, R., Sullivan, P.A., Cassone, A. J. Infect. Dis. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Evaluation of two serological tests for Trichomonas vaginalis infection. Mathews, H.M., Healy, G.R. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Low-dose, vaginally administered estrogens may enhance local benefits of systemic therapy in the treatment of urogenital atrophy in postmenopausal women on hormone therapy. Palacios, S., Castelo-Branco, C., Cancelo, M.J., Vázquez, F. Maturitas. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Disposition kinetics of metronidazole in children. Amon, I., Amon, K., Scharp, H., Franke, G., Nagel, F. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Multiple experimental designs to evaluate the role of T-cell-mediated immunity against experimental vaginal Candida albicans infection. Wormley, F.L., Cutright, J., Fidel, P.L. Med. Mycol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Prospective comparison of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefaclor in treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Gurwith, M.J., Stein, G.E., Gurwith, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Short term oral estriol treatment restores normal premenopausal vaginal flora to elderly women. Yoshimura, T., Okamura, H. Maturitas. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Electron microscopy of adhesive interactions between Gardnerella vaginalis and vaginal epithelial cells, McCoy cells and human red blood cells. Scott, T.G., Curran, B., Smyth, C.J. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect of treatment with povidone-iodine vaginal pessaries on thyroid function. Darwish, N.A., Shaarawy, M. Postgraduate medical journal. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Circulating heat shock proteins in women with a history of recurrent vulvovaginitis. Giraldo, P.C., Ribeiro-Filho, A.D., Simões, J.A., Neuer, A., Feitosa, S.B., Witkin, S.S. Infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Protective role of antimannan and anti-aspartyl proteinase antibodies in an experimental model of Candida albicans vaginitis in rats. De Bernardis, F., Boccanera, M., Adriani, D., Spreghini, E., Santoni, G., Cassone, A. Infect. Immun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Resistance of T-cell receptor delta-chain-deficient mice to experimental Candida albicans vaginitis. Wormley, F.L., Steele, C., Wozniak, K., Fujihashi, K., McGhee, J.R., Fidel, P.L. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. High aspartyl proteinase production and vaginitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women. de Bernardis, F., Mondello, F., Scaravelli, G., Pachì, A., Girolamo, A., Agatensi, L., Cassone, A. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Most frequent scenario for recurrent Candida vaginitis is strain maintenance with "substrain shuffling": demonstration by sequential DNA fingerprinting with probes Ca3, C1, and CARE2. Lockhart, S.R., Reed, B.D., Pierson, C.L., Soll, D.R. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Treatment of vaginitis caused by Candida glabrata: use of topical boric acid and flucytosine. Sobel, J.D., Chaim, W., Nagappan, V., Leaman, D. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Impaired tolerance for glucose in women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis. Donders, G.G., Prenen, H., Verbeke, G., Reybrouck, R. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Microbiological/clinical characteristics and validation of topical therapy with kanamycin in aerobic vaginitis: a pilot study. Tempera, G., Bonfiglio, G., Cammarata, E., Corsello, S., Cianci, A. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Trichomonal vaginitis: evaluation of serological tests and identification of immunoreactive surface peptides. Satapathy, G., Kar, S.K., Samantaray, J.C., Panda, S.K. Genitourinary medicine. (1988) [Pubmed]
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