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Chemical Compound Review

Nitrazine     2-(bis(aminocarbamoylmethyl) amino)ethanehy...

Synonyms: AT-1902, NSC-351359, AC1L2IIW, AC1Q5PWK, LS-12590, ...
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Disease relevance of AT 1902

  • The nitrazine test results were affected by vaginal discharge but the PROM test results were not affected [1].
  • The first principle, which is accepted by most, consists of searching for a positive history of PROM, confirming PROM (by speculum examination, pooling, positive Nitrazine testing, and ferning), and obtaining cervical and vaginal cultures (for group B streptococcus/gonococcus and chlamydia) [2].

High impact information on AT 1902

  • We compared this improved AFP test with the nitrazine test for 137 patients [3].
  • The nitrazine test showed a specificity of 58.3%, whereas the AFP kit showed a 100% rate for detecting > or = 37 weeks of gestation (P < 0.01) [3].
  • PPROM patients had documented confirmatory tests, including visualized pooling of amniotic fluid in the vaginal vault that was nitrazine-positive and demonstrated ferning [4].
  • In problematic cases, the nitrazine and fern tests can be used to confirm the diagnosis [5].
  • METHODS: In a multicenter clinical trial, pooling, ferning, and nitrazine tests were compared with fetal fibronectin in 339 women at term (study group) with a clinical history of rupture of the membranes and in 67 women at term receiving routine prenatal care (controls) [6].

Biological context of AT 1902

  • The nitrazine test correctly diagnosed 62.1% of the cases, but the improved AFP kit diagnosed 98.0% for < 37 weeks of gestation (P < 0.001) [3].

Anatomical context of AT 1902

  • "Fig leaf" ferning and positive Nitrazine testing: semen as a cause of misdiagnosis of premature rupture of membranes [7].
  • The result of the AL-SENSE strip test was compared with the clinical diagnosis, which was based on direct visualization of the posterior vaginal fornix and cervix, crystallization, and nitrazine tests [8].
  • Most studies investigating the usefulness of ferning and nitrazine methods for detecting the presence of amniotic fluid following ruptured amniotic membranes have employed samples from vaginal pooling [9].

Associations of AT 1902 with other chemical compounds

  • After she later complained of fluid leakage, a premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) was suspected, because of positive results on a test for nitrazine, the intra-amniotic dye injection method (PSP test), and an AFP-kit test at 22 weeks of gestation [10].

Gene context of AT 1902


  1. Significance of detecting insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in cervicovaginal secretions: comparison with nitrazine test and amniotic fluid volume assessment. Erdemoglu, E., Mungan, T. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Management of preterm premature rupture of membranes. Veille, J.C. Clinics in perinatology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes with an improved alpha-fetoprotein monoclonal antibody kit. Kishida, T., Hirao, A., Matsuura, T., Katamine, T., Yamada, H., Sagawa, T., Fujimoto, S. Clin. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Qualitative human chorionicgonadotropin testing of cervicovaginal washings for the detection of preterm premature rupture of membranes. Cooper, A.L., Vermillion, S.T., Soper, D.E. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Premature rupture of the membranes in term patients. Duff, P. Semin. Perinatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Fetal fibronectin: a method for detecting the presence of amniotic fluid. Eriksen, N.L., Parisi, V.M., Daoust, S., Flamm, B., Garite, T.J., Cox, S.M. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. "Fig leaf" ferning and positive Nitrazine testing: semen as a cause of misdiagnosis of premature rupture of membranes. McGregor, J.A., Johnson, S. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Nonintrusive diagnosis of premature ruptured amniotic membranes using a novel polymer. Bornstein, J., Geva, A., Solt, I., Fait, V., Schoenfeld, A., Shoham, H.K., Sobel, J. American journal of perinatology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. The ferning and nitrazine tests of amniotic fluid between 12 and 41 weeks gestation. Bennett, S.L., Cullen, J.B., Sherer, D.M., Woods, J.R. American journal of perinatology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Silent premature rupture of membranes, detected and monitored serially by an AFP kit. Yamada, H., Kishida, T., Negishi, H., Sagawa, T., Fujimoto, S. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Diagnosis of premature rupture of the membranes in preterm patients, using an improved AFP kit: comparison with ROM-check and/or nitrazine test. Kishida, T., Yamada, H., Negishi, H., Sagawa, T., Makinoda, S., Fujimoto, S. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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