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MeSH Review

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

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Disease relevance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

  • Phase variation in both the gonococcus and E. coli was recA-independent, occurred at similar rates, and involved insertions or deletions of one or more repeat units [1].
  • The gonococcus and meningococcus, which infect human mucosal surfaces, elaborate a highly specific proteolytic enzyme which cleaves the immunoglobulin A1 subclass of the principal mucosal antibody, immunoglobulin A (IgA) [2].
  • Of 65 ciprofloxacin-resistant, clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 5 isolates exhibited ParC mutations previously undescribed in the gonococcus [3].
  • Current recommendations include the use of newer third generation cephalosporins such as ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime and cefotaxime which give excellent coverage of the gonococcus and the Enterobacteriaceae [4].
  • Studies on gonococcus infection. XVII. IgA1-cleaving protease in vaginal washings from women with gonorrhea [5].

High impact information on Neisseria gonorrhoeae


Chemical compound and disease context of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

  • The importance of these oligosaccharides in gonococcal biology is clear from the fact that they contain the epitopes that are the targets for killing by normal human serum, and the acceptor site for sialic acid, which acts to protect the gonococcus from this killing [11].
  • Our findings demonstrate a role for lipid A as a C3 acceptor site and suggest that multiple factors govern C3b deposition and its subsequent conversion to iC3b on the surface of the gonococcus within the cervical microenvironment [12].
  • Chemical fractionation of labeled cells and total hexose analyses revealed that growth pH markedly affected the composition of the gonococcus [13].
  • This vaginal isolate may be a genetically transformed gonococcus with the ability to utilize maltose [14].
  • Enhancement of coagglutination reactions of the Phadebact gonococcus test by ethylenediaminetetraacetate and ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N-tetraacetate [15].

Biological context of Neisseria gonorrhoeae


Anatomical context of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

  • These data are compatible with the hypothesis that, in the initial encounter with previously uninfected human genital mucosa, the production of IgA1 protease is not critical to the ability of the gonococcus to act as a mucosal pathogen [17].
  • Use of the o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside test in conjunction with the Phadebact Gonococcus Test, particularly on isolates from the pharynx, is recommended [18].
  • Some features of the structure of the gonococcus, e.g. the six-layered cell wall, and of the reactions of the organism in different forms of gonorrhoeae before and during treatment with antibiotics were demonstrated using Ruthenium red staining [19].

Gene context of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

  • Although a number of studies have examined Fe uptake by Neisseria meningitidis, no comparable studies have been done on Fe uptake by the gonococcus from TF and LF [20].
  • To investigate the roles of the gonococcal recN and recJ genes in the recombination-based processes of the gonococcus, these genes were inactivated in the N. gonorrhoeae strain FA1090 [21].
  • Between 1988 and 1995, 518 strains of TRNG (tetracycline MIC > were referred to the Gonococcus Reference Unit by other laboratories or isolated from routine swabs taken at local clinics [22].
  • Median CD4 count was 291 cells x 10(6)/l. 87 subjects underwent a urethritis screen (Gram stained urethral smear and culture for gonococcus, and LCR for Chlamydia trachomatis on first pass urine) [23].
  • The wild-type gonococcus but not the IgA1 protease-deficient mutant elaborated IgA1 protease into the medium [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

  • This PCR technique is specific and sensitive, being able to detect gonococcal strains belonging to ten different PIB serovars, but not PIA gonococcus nor other negative control bacteria [24].


  1. Phase variation of gonococcal protein II: regulation of gene expression by slipped-strand mispairing of a repetitive DNA sequence. Murphy, G.L., Connell, T.D., Barritt, D.S., Koomey, M., Cannon, J.G. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and neisseria meningitidis: extracellular enzyme cleaves human immunoglobulin A. Plaut, A.G., Gilbert, J.V., Artenstein, M.S., Capra, J.D. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification of novel mutation patterns in the parC gene of ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Trees, D.L., Sandul, A.L., Whittington, W.L., Knapp, J.S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Optimum therapy for acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Dodson, M.G. Drugs (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Studies on gonococcus infection. XVII. IgA1-cleaving protease in vaginal washings from women with gonorrhea. Blake, M., Holmes, K.K., Swanson, J. J. Infect. Dis. (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Beta-lactamase-producing Gonococcus from Ghana. Barrow, J., Phillips, I. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. Beta-lactamase-producing, penicillin-resistant gonococcus. Phillips, I. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  8. The molecular mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae to initiate infection differ between men and women. Edwards, J.L., Apicella, M.A. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Porin protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: cloning and gene structure. Gotschlich, E.C., Seiff, M.E., Blake, M.S., Koomey, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Analysis of type I restriction modification systems in the Neisseriaceae: genetic organization and properties of the gene products. Piekarowicz, A., Kłyz, A., Kwiatek, A., Stein, D.C. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. The role of galE in the biosynthesis and function of gonococcal lipopolysaccharide. Robertson, B.D., Frosch, M., van Putten, J.P. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. The role of lipooligosaccharide in Neisseria gonorrhoeae pathogenesis of cervical epithelia: lipid A serves as a C3 acceptor molecule. Edwards, J.L., Apicella, M.A. Cell. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of pH on the growth and glucose metabolism of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Morse, S.A., Hebeler, B.H. Infect. Immun. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Organism resembling Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis. Hodge, D.S., Ashton, F.E., Terro, R., Ali, A.S. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Enhancement of coagglutination reactions of the Phadebact gonococcus test by ethylenediaminetetraacetate and ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N-tetraacetate. Izakson, I., Morse, S.A. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Transformation-derived Neisseria gonorrhoeae plasmids with altered structure and function. Sox, T.E., Mohammed, W., Sparling, P.F. J. Bacteriol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. Attachment to and invasion of human fallopian tube mucosa by an IgA1 protease-deficient mutant of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its wild-type parent. Cooper, M.D., McGee, Z.A., Mulks, M.H., Koomey, J.M., Hindman, T.L. J. Infect. Dis. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Evaluation of the Phadebact Gonococcus Test for confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Anand, C.M., Kadis, E.M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Ultrastructure of gonococci in acute, chronic, and asymptomatic gonorrhoea. Ovcinnikov, N.M., Delektorskij, V.V., Dmitriev, G.A. The British journal of venereal diseases. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Iron uptake from lactoferrin and transferrin by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. McKenna, W.R., Mickelsen, P.A., Sparling, P.F., Dyer, D.W. Infect. Immun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Roles of the recJ and recN genes in homologous recombination and DNA repair pathways of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Skaar, E.P., Lazio, M.P., Seifert, H.S. J. Bacteriol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Molecular epidemiology of tetM genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Turner, A., Gough, K.R., Leeming, J.P. Sexually transmitted infections. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Asymptomatic urethritis and detection of HIV-1 RNA in seminal plasma. Winter, A.J., Taylor, S., Workman, J., White, D., Ross, J.D., Swan, A.V., Pillay, D. Sexually transmitted infections. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae protein IB gene: partial nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis of strains S4, S11, S48 (serovar IB4) and S34 (serovar IB5). Lau, Q.C., Chow, V.T., Poh, C.L. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. (Berl.) (1993) [Pubmed]
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