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MeSH Review

Surgical Instruments

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Disease relevance of Surgical Instruments

  • The rate of transplacental passage of diazepam (DZ) has been studied in 33 cases of cephalic presentation where operative forceps delivery was indicated by intrauterine hypoxia or by prolonged second stage of labor [1].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: As a model for contaminated surgical instruments, thin stainless-steel wire segments were exposed to scrapie agent, washed exhaustively with or without treatment with 10% formaldehyde, and implanted into the brains of indicator mice [2].
  • Implants increased with pneumoperitoneum at the midline incision from 44% to 71% (p < 0.01) and at trocar sites from 41% to 64% (p < 0.00001) [3].
  • Two experiments in rats were performed to determine the impact of both tissue trauma and leakage of CO2 along trocars (chimney effect) in the development of port-site metastases [4].
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of vaginal fetal fibronectin sampling without use of a sterile speculum examination as a screening test for predicting spontaneous preterm birth [5].

Psychiatry related information on Surgical Instruments


High impact information on Surgical Instruments

  • After 7 weeks, animals were sacrificed, and trocar and midline wounds were harvested for macroscopic and histological analysis [8].
  • Cytochalasin B (CB), at 100 or at 10 mg/kg single dose s.c. in carboxymethyl-cellulose (2%)/Tween-20 (1%) 24 h after s.c. challenge of B6D2F1 mice with trocar implants of B16F10 tumor s.c., delayed the appearance of measurable tumor nodules by 157 and 93%, respectively, and extended host survival by 65 and 26% [9].
  • The detection of PrP(Sc) in muscle tissue from all forms of CJD indicates the possible presence of infectivity in these tissues, suggesting important implications for assessing the potential risk of iatrogenic spread via contaminated surgical instruments [10].
  • An extra working channel allowed the introduction of biopsy forceps or injection needles as well as surface staining with methylene blue in order to visualise the surface of the crypts and the pit pattern architecture [11].
  • Once the trocar is removed, the blunt-ended cannula can be advanced or can be subject to inadvertent motion without causing damage to the luminal surface of the access [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Surgical Instruments

  • Culture of Helicobacter pylori: effect of preimmersion of biopsy forceps in formalin [13].
  • After external forceps crush injury alone, contrast angiograms were generally normal (6 of 14) or showed minimal luminal irregularity (3 of 14), and 5 of 14 had 30% to 50% stenosis [14].
  • Phase 2: all speculums inoculated with adenovirus supported growth of the organism irrespective of cleaning with 70% isopropyl alcohol swabs [15].
  • The use of forceps and the presence of fetal distress were both associated with significantly raised tissue concentrations of PGE2 [16].
  • Nitinol goose-neck snares were used in 28 of 32 cases, but more than one retrieval system was required in eight cases (25%), often using grasping forceps, tip-deflecting wires, or stone baskets to move the foreign body into a more favorable position for snaring [17].

Biological context of Surgical Instruments


Anatomical context of Surgical Instruments


Associations of Surgical Instruments with chemical compounds

  • This problem was solved by selecting a biopsy forceps producing smaller variations in sample size, by limiting the time of cold ischaemia to four to five minutes only and by taking three biopsy specimens for each single histamine value [27].
  • PGE2 and LTB4 concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay for tissue samples that were flash frozen after removal from the biopsy forceps and also in medium that was collected from tissue samples that were incubated for 4 h following removal from the subject [28].
  • Radiopaque surgical clips placed at excision biopsy help plan boost-irradiation target fields [29].
  • Neonatal drug concentrations and neonate/mother concentration ratios are reported in 73 cases of elective Caesarean section and forceps deliveries where diazepam was used as an intravenous sleep-inducing agent [30].
  • The majority of the CL, VL and MD neurons were excited by nociceptive stimulation such as pinching the skin with serrated forceps and/or intra-arterial injection of bradykinin [31].

Gene context of Surgical Instruments

  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to carry out an immunohistochemical analysis of cell cycle-regulating-protein (p21, p27, and Ki-67) expression in endoscopic biopsy samples obtained using angled biopsy forceps [32].
  • The SPARC technique involves passage of the trocars from an initial suprapubic approach [33].
  • Fiberoptic endoscopy of the nose is not essential for routine evaluation of allergic rhinitis when the allergist is skilled in performing a thorough speculum examination [34].
  • Laparoscopic tubal manipulating forceps for extrusion of early ectopic pregnancy [35].
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of the fetal fibronectin samples collected with a speculum (27/121) yielded positive results [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Surgical Instruments

  • Significantly more women randomized to epidural analgesia had forceps deliveries compared with those randomized to meperidine analgesia (12% [26 of 226] vs. 3% [7 of 233]; P < 0.001) [37].
  • All methods of management except needle aspiration resulted in a fair rate of resolution (70 to 100%), but recurrence rates were high for observation (60%), needle aspiration (79%), trocar thoracotomy (63%), tetracycline sclerosis (86%), and silver nitrate sclerosis (43%) [38].
  • The following protective measures were applied in nine animals: trocar fixation, prevention of gas leaks, rinsing of instruments with povidone-iodine, minilaparotomy protection, rinsing of trocars before removal, peritoneal closure, and rinsing of all wounds with povidoneiodine [39].
  • No GI flora were found on forceps after the colonoscopes after soaking in gluteraldehyde for 2 and 20 minutes [40].
  • These results demonstrate that irrigation with an isotonic mannitol surpasses that with conventional ionic fluids, such as a saline, for prevention of both tissue adherence to bipolar diathermy forceps and removal of heat generated during electrical coagulation [41].


  1. Transplacental passage of diazepam during labor: influence of uterine contractions. Haram, K., Bakke, O.M., Johannessen, K.H., Lund, T. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Infectivity of scrapie prions bound to a stainless steel surface. Zobeley, E., Flechsig, E., Cozzio, A., Enari, M., Weissmann, C. Mol. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Implantation of colon cancer at trocar sites is increased by low pressure pneumoperitoneum. Wu, J.S., Brasfield, E.B., Guo, L.W., Ruiz, M., Connett, J.M., Philpott, G.W., Jones, D.B., Fleshman, J.W. Surgery (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Port-site metastases. Impact of local tissue trauma and gas leakage. Tseng, L.N., Berends, F.J., Wittich, P., Bouvy, N.D., Marquet, R.L., Kazemier, G., Bonjer, H.J. Surgical endoscopy. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. "Blind" vaginal fetal fibronectin as a predictor of spontaneous preterm delivery. Roman, A.S., Koklanaris, N., Paidas, M.J., Mulholland, J., Levitz, M., Rebarber, A. Obstetrics and gynecology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Riluzole restores motor activity in rats with post-traumatic peripheral neuropathy. Medico, M., Nicosia, A., Grech, M., Onesta, M., Sessa, G., Rampello, L., Drago, F. Neurosci. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Attributable testing for abnormal prion protein, database linkage, and blood-borne vCJD risks. Bird, S.M. Lancet (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Copper-64-pyruvaldehyde-bis(N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone) for the prevention of tumor growth at wound sites following laparoscopic surgery: monitoring therapy response with microPET and magnetic resonance imaging. Lewis, J.S., Connett, J.M., Garbow, J.R., Buettner, T.L., Fujibayashi, Y., Fleshman, J.W., Welch, M.J. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of cytochalasin B in culture and in vivo on murine Madison 109 lung carcinoma and on B16 melanoma. Bousquet, P.F., Paulsen, L.A., Fondy, C., Lipski, K.M., Loucy, K.J., Fondy, T.P. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Detection and localization of PrPSc in the skeletal muscle of patients with variant, iatrogenic, and sporadic forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Peden, A.H., Ritchie, D.L., Head, M.W., Ironside, J.W. Am. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. In vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer development in mice using high resolution chromoendoscopy. Becker, C., Fantini, M.C., Wirtz, S., Nikolaev, A., Kiesslich, R., Lehr, H.A., Galle, P.R., Neurath, M.F. Gut (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Minimizing hemodialysis vascular access trauma with an improved needle design. Ross, E.A., Verlander, J.W., Koo, L.C., Hawkins, I.F. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Culture of Helicobacter pylori: effect of preimmersion of biopsy forceps in formalin. Yousfi, M.M., Reddy, R., Osato, M.S., Graham, D.Y. Helicobacter (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Combined mechanical and chemical thrombolysis in an experimental animal model: evaluation by angiography and angioscopy. Ritchie, J.L., Hansen, D.D., Johnson, C., Vracko, R., Auth, D.C. Am. Heart J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Disinfection of eyelid speculums for retinopathy of prematurity examination. Woodman, T.J., Coats, D.K., Paysse, E.A., Demmler, G.J., Rossmann, S.N. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. The relation between umbilical cord tissue prostaglandin E2 levels, mode of onset of labour, fetal distress and method of delivery. Willman, E.A., Rodeck, C.H., Collins, W.P., Clayton, S.G. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. Retrieval of intravascular foreign bodies: experience in 32 cases. Egglin, T.K., Dickey, K.W., Rosenblatt, M., Pollak, J.S. AJR. American journal of roentgenology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. M100907, a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist and a potential antipsychotic drug, facilitates N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor mediated neurotransmission in the rat medial prefrontal cortical neurons in vitro. Arvanov, V.L., Wang, R.Y. Neuropsychopharmacology (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Biopsy forceps disinfection technique does not influence Helicobacter pylori culture. Elizalde, J.I., Gómez, J., Ginès, A., Llach, J., Piqué, J.M., Bordas, J.M., Marco, F., Terés, J. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Intrapartum rupture of the unscarred uterus. Miller, D.A., Goodwin, T.M., Gherman, R.B., Paul, R.H. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Disinfection of eyelid specula with chlorhexidine gluconate (Hibiclens) after examinations for retinopathy of prematurity. Hutchinson, A.K., Coats, D.K., Langdale, L.M., Steed, L.L., Demmler, G., Saunders, R.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Neuroprotective effect of sulfhydryl reduction in a rat optic nerve crush model. Swanson, K.I., Schlieve, C.R., Lieven, C.J., Levin, L.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Ornithine decarboxylase: an unreliable marker for the identification of population groups at risk for colonic neoplasia. Braverman, D.Z., Stankiewicz, H., Goldstein, R., Patz, J.K., Morali, G.A., Jacobsohn, W.Z. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Painful cystic duct remnant diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound. Topazian, M., Salem, R.R., Robert, M.E. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Cardiovascular pathology and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Abber, J.C., Langberg, J., Mueller, S.C., Griffin, J.C., Thuroff, J.W. J. Urol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Reduction of pain and nausea after laparoscopic sterilization with bupivacaine, metoclopramide, scopolamine, ketorolac, and gastric suctioning. Bradford, T.H., Robertson, K., Norman, P.F., Meeks, G.R. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Sample taking problems in measuring actual histamine levels of human gastroduodenal mucosa: specific and general relevance in clinical trials on peptic ulcer pathogenesis and selective proximal vagotomy. Thon, K.P., Lorenz, W., Ohmann, C., Weber, D., Rohde, H., Röher, H.D. Gut (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of aspirin on prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 production in human colonic mucosa from cancer patients. Frommel, T.O., Dyavanapalli, M., Oldham, T., Kazi, N., Lietz, H., Liao, Y., Mobarhan, S. Clin. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Breast-conserving surgery for primary breast cancer: necessity for surgical clips to define the tumor bed for radiation planning. Hunter, M.A., McFall, T.A., Hehr, K.A. Radiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Time-course of transplacental passage of diazepam: Influence of injection-delivery interval on neonatal drug concentrations. Bakke, O.M., Haram, K. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1982) [Pubmed]
  31. Antinociceptive action of morphine and pentazocine on unit activity in the nucleus centralis lateralis, nucleus ventralis lateralis and nearby structures of the cat. Nakahama, H., Shima, K., Aya, K., Kisara, K., Sakurada, S. Pain (1981) [Pubmed]
  32. Immunohistochemical analysis of cell cycle-regulating-protein (p21, p27, and Ki-67) expression in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Nishiyama, Y., Koyama, S., Andoh, A., Moritani, S., Kushima, R., Fujiyama, Y., Hattori, T., Bamba, T. J. Gastroenterol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Treatment of stress incontinence with the SPARC sling: intraoperative and early complications of 445 patients. Hodroff, M.A., Sutherland, S.E., Kesha, J.B., Siegel, S.W. Urology (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy: a procedure for allergists? Schumacher, M.J. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  35. Laparoscopic tubal manipulating forceps for extrusion of early ectopic pregnancy. Phipps, J.H. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Fetal fibronectin detection in preterm labor: evaluation of a prototype bedside dipstick technique and cervical assessment. Coleman, M.A., McCowan, L.M., Pattison, N.S., Mitchell, M. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Cesarean delivery: a randomized trial of epidural analgesia versus intravenous meperidine analgesia during labor in nulliparous women. Sharma, S.K., Alexander, J.M., Messick, G., Bloom, S.L., McIntire, D.D., Wiley, J., Leveno, K.J. Anesthesiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Pneumothorax in cystic fibrosis: management and outcome. McLaughlin, F.J., Matthews, W.J., Strieder, D.J., Khaw, K.T., Schuster, S., Shwachman, H. J. Pediatr. (1982) [Pubmed]
  39. Efficacy of surgical measures in preventing port-site recurrences in a porcine model. Schneider, C., Jung, A., Reymond, M.A., Tannapfel, A., Balli, J., Franklin, M.E., Hohenberger, W., Köckerling, F. Surgical endoscopy. (2001) [Pubmed]
  40. Contamination of single-use biopsy forceps: a prospective in vitro analysis. Kinney, T.P., Kozarek, R.A., Raltz, S., Attia, F. Gastrointest. Endosc. (2002) [Pubmed]
  41. Isotonic mannitol and the prevention of local heat generation and tissue adherence to bipolar diathermy forceps tips during electrical coagulation. Technical note. Sakatani, K., Ohtaki, M., Morimoto, S., Hashi, K. J. Neurosurg. (1995) [Pubmed]
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