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Chemical Compound Review

Neantine     diethyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate

Synonyms: Phthalol, Solvanol, Anozol, Palatinol A, Placidol E, ...
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Disease relevance of Solvanol


High impact information on Solvanol

  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference doses for these chemicals are 100 (DBP) , 800 (DEP) , 200 (BBzP) , and 20 (DEHP) microg/kg/day [4].
  • Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated by gavage daily from Gestational Days 12 through 19 with corn oil vehicle (1 ml/kg) or diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), dioctyl tere-phthalate (DOTP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), dipentyl phthalate (DPP), or benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) at 500 mg/kg per day [5].
  • The dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were well separated within 16min by a C-18 column and eluted gradient from 40 to 90% aqueous acetonitrile (at pH 6.0) and 1.0 to 1.5mL/min flow-rate [6].
  • For infants relying on breast-feeding, the mean daily intake over the first 6-month period considering a 7 kg infant consuming 750 g of milk was estimated at 167 microg d(-1) for DEHP and less than 1 microg d(-1) for DBP and DEP [7].
  • Mice were given diets with diethyl phthalate (DEP) (0.0, 0.25, 1.25, or 2.5%), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) (0.0, 0.03, 0.3, or 1.0%), di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHP) (0.0, 0.3, 0.6, or 1.2%), or di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (0.0, 0.01, 0.1, or 0.3%) [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of Solvanol

  • Four phthalate esters, namely, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP, di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPP)., di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were investigated in vivo and their monoesters (MEHP, MPP, MOP, and MEP, respectively) in vitro for indications of Leydig cell toxicity in the rat [8].
  • It was possible to derive 10-d LC50 (lethal concentration for 50% of the population) values only for the four lower molecular weight esters (DMP, DEP, DBP, and BBP), for which toxicity increased with increasing octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) and decreasing water solubility [9].

Anatomical context of Solvanol

  • When lipophilic compounds like diethyl phthalate (DEP) were added to water, two sets of resonances appeared in the 1H NMR spectrum, whereas when added in concentrations above approximately 3.5 mM to erythrocytes in a high haematocrit suspension, only one set of resonances was observed at the low-frequency position [10].

Associations of Solvanol with other chemical compounds

  • A method has been developed for the separation and determination of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) [11].
  • The contamination by phthalates such as dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in 23 arable soils throughout China was investigated to evaluate the present pollution situation [12].
  • Four additives were incorporated in the microspheres: two non-fatty plasticizers: diethylphthalate and triacetin, and two fatty substances: isopropyl myristate and Myvacet [13].

Gene context of Solvanol

  • Subacute oral toxicity study of diethylphthalate based on the draft protocol for "Enhanced OECD Test Guideline no. 407" [14].
  • Diethyl phthalate (DEP; CAS No. 84-66-2) has many industrial uses, as a solvent and vehicle for fragrance and cosmetic ingredients and subsequent skin contact [15].
  • Sera from 71 CHP and 80 controls were tested for IgE antibodies to diethylphthalate-treated HSA; antibody was detected in two CHP sera [16].
  • Effluent biomonitoring of freshwater mussels showed only bioaccumulation for: diethylphthalate, LAS, EOX as well as Cr and Ni [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Solvanol

  • Responding (H for heavy) cells incubated in medium containing 5 mM K lose KCl and water and increase their density to the point of sinking on diethylphthalate (specific gravity = 1.12) on centrifugation [18].
  • A rapid and sensitive reverse-phase HPLC method with UV detection was developed for the quantitation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in cosmetic preparations [19].
  • Scanning electron microscopy allowed the vizualization of the highly porous structure of microspheres containing the oily substances, and the unchanged smooth surface of diethylphthalate-containing microspheres [13].


  1. Assessment of the mutagenicity of phthalate esters. Kozumbo, W.J., Kroll, R., Rubin, R.J. Environ. Health Perspect. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Reproductive effects of four phthalic acid esters in the mouse. Lamb, J.C., Chapin, R.E., Teague, J., Lawton, A.D., Reel, J.R. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Simultaneous administration of diethylphthalate and ethyl alcohol and its toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Sonde, V., D'souza, A., Tarapore, R., Pereira, L., Khare, M.P., Sinkar, P., Krishnan, S., Rao, C.V. Toxicology (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Estimated daily phthalate exposures in a population of mothers of male infants exhibiting reduced anogenital distance. Marsee, K., Woodruff, T.J., Axelrad, D.A., Calafat, A.M., Swan, S.H. Environ. Health Perspect. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Gene expression profiling following in utero exposure to phthalate esters reveals new gene targets in the etiology of testicular dysgenesis. Liu, K., Lehmann, K.P., Sar, M., Young, S.S., Gaido, K.W. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Determination of phthalate esters from food-contacted materials by on-line microdialysis and liquid chromatography. Jen, J.F., Liu, T.C. Journal of chromatography. A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Phthalate esters in human milk: concentration variations over a 6-month postpartum time. Zhu, J., Phillips, S.P., Feng, Y.L., Yang, X. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. The influence of phthalate esters on Leydig cell structure and function in vitro and in vivo. Jones, H.B., Garside, D.A., Liu, R., Roberts, J.C. Exp. Mol. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. An assessment of the toxicity of phthalate esters to freshwater benthos. 1. Aqueous exposures. Call, D.J., Markee, T.P., Geiger, D.L., Brooke, L.T., VandeVenter, F.A., Cox, D.A., Genisot, K.I., Robillard, K.A., Gorsuch, J.W., Parkerton, T.F., Reiley, M.C., Ankley, G.T., Mount, D.R. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. 1H NMR of compounds with low water solubility in the presence of erythrocytes: effects of emulsion phase separation. Hansen, P.E., Skibsted, U., Nissen, J., Rae, C.D., Kuchel, P.W. Eur. Biophys. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Separation and determination of phthalates by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Guo, B.Y., Wen, B., Shan, X.Q., Zhang, S.Z., Lin, J.M. Journal of chromatography. A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Survey of phthalate pollution in arable soils in China. Hu, X.Y., Wen, B., Shan, X.Q. Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Influence of additives on the release profile of nifedipine from poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres. Sansdrap, P., Moës, A.J. Journal of microencapsulation. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Subacute oral toxicity study of diethylphthalate based on the draft protocol for "Enhanced OECD Test Guideline no. 407". Shiraishi, K., Miyata, K., Houshuyama, S., Imatanaka, N., Umano, T., Minobe, Y., Yamasaki, K. Arch. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Toxicological profile of diethyl phthalate: a vehicle for fragrance and cosmetic ingredients. Api, A.M. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Antibody responses to hemodialysis-related antigens in chronic hemodialysis patients. Dolovich, J., Evans, S., Baurmeister, U., Schulze, H., Ali, M., Shimizu, A. Artificial organs. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Combined chemical analyses and biomonitoring at Avedoere wastewater treatment plant in 2002. Jacobsen, B.N., Kjersgaard, D., Winther-Nielsen, M., Gustavson, K. Water Sci. Technol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. All or none cell responses of Ca2+-dependent K channels elicited by calcium or lead in human red cells can be explained by heterogeneity of agonist distribution. Alvarez, J., García-Sancho, J., Herreros, B. J. Membr. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Analysis of consumer cosmetic products for phthalate esters. Hubinger, J.C., Havery, D.C. Journal of cosmetic science. (2006) [Pubmed]
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