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Gene Review

glnD  -  PII uridylyl-transferase

Escherichia coli CFT073

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Disease relevance of glnD


High impact information on glnD

  • Although other homologues of the Escherichia coli Ntr system (glnK, coding for a PII family protein; and glnD, coding for an uridylyltransferase) are found in the S. coelicolor genome, the regulation of the GSI activity was found to be different [5].
  • The glnD mutant revealed a decreased growth rate in the presence of limiting amounts of ammonium or urea; additionally, changes in its protein profile were observed, as shown by in vivo labelling and two-dimensional PAGE [4].
  • We report that chromosomal mini-Tn10 insertions situated after nucleotide number 997 or 1075 of glnD partially suppressed the osmosensitive phenotype of DeltaotsBA or otsA::Tn10 mutations (defective osmoregulatory trehalose synthesis) [1].
  • When expressed from the Pm promoter in plasmid constructs, the present glnD mutations produced proteins with an apparent mass of 39 or 42 kDa [1].
  • The 5 kb chromosomal DNA region encoding the glnD gene on cosmid pAD401 was identified by introduction of deletions as well as subcloning of restriction fragments followed by subsequent DNA sequencing [3].

Biological context of glnD


Associations of glnD with chemical compounds

  • Additionally, we found that the growth of a glnF or glnD strain on LB medium depends on RelA or supplemental glutamine in the absence of RelA function [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of glnD

  • The nitrogen dependency of the glnD gene has been analyzed by Northern blot, RNase protection, and promoter-luciferase activity assays [9].


  1. Transposon mutations in the 5' end of glnD, the gene for a nitrogen regulatory sensor, that suppress the osmosensitive phenotype caused by otsBA lesions in Escherichia coli. Tøndervik, A., Torgersen, H.R., Botnmark, H.K., Strøm, A.R. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. The product of the nitrogen fixation regulatory gene nfrX of Azotobacter vinelandii is functionally and structurally homologous to the uridylyltransferase encoded by glnD in enteric bacteria. Contreras, A., Drummond, M., Bali, A., Blanco, G., Garcia, E., Bush, G., Kennedy, C., Merrick, M. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Isolation and characterization of the glnD gene of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, encoding a putative uridylyltransferase/uridylyl-removing enzyme. Perlova, O., Nawroth, R., Zellermann, E.M., Meletzus, D. Gene (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Sensing nitrogen limitation in Corynebacterium glutamicum: the role of glnK and glnD. Nolden, L., Ngouoto-Nkili, C.E., Bendt, A.K., Krämer, R., Burkovski, A. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. The GlnD and GlnK homologues of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) are functionally dissimilar to their nitrogen regulatory system counterparts from enteric bacteria. Hesketh, A., Fink, D., Gust, B., Rexer, H.U., Scheel, B., Chater, K., Wohlleben, W., Engels, A. Mol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Localization of the glnD gene on a revised map of the 200-kilobase region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. van Heeswijk, W., Kuppinger, O., Merrick, M., Kahn, D. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of glnB and glnD gene products in regulation of the glnALG operon of Escherichia coli. Bueno, R., Pahel, G., Magasanik, B. J. Bacteriol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Control of ftsZ expression, cell division, and glutamine metabolism in Luria-Bertani medium by the alarmone ppGpp in Escherichia coli. Powell, B.S., Court, D.L. J. Bacteriol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Transcriptional control of the glnD gene is not dependent on nitrogen availability in Escherichia coli. Kim, I.H., Kwak, S.J., Kang, J., Park, S.C. Mol. Cells (1998) [Pubmed]
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